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英语讲义【130】对句法的成分不对应

2007-07-05 14:42陈清霖

  在英语修辞上,“对句法”(parallelism)是一种行之有效的句子结构,不但可以使句子里的每个成分等量齐观,而且可以收到很好的传讯效益。

  所谓对句法,就是同一个句子中的等立成分都要以相同的形式出现,使句式工整,内容一目了然。例如:

  “If you want to communicate well, you must learn to think logically, (to) organize your ideas coherently, and (to) express yourself explicitly.

  很多人并没有根据这原则作文或写文章,结果句子虽然合乎语法,但句子成分不对应;这样的句子不能说错,但是也无可取之处。

  下面三个长句中,都有对句法成分不对应之处,请大家辨认:

  ① This finely made pen is sturdy and will serve you well every day, whether at work, office or at home.

  这句子中有三个副词短语,但中间那个有偏差,要改为“in the office”才能和“at work”及“at home”搭配。

  ② We are proud of the various changes…… For example, the corporation of universities, the introduction of scholarships for bright students, the revamp in national examinations, and recently allowing bright students to progress according to their ability.

  这句里举了四种变化,但是第四种变化中用的是动名词短语,有别于其他三种结构,使对句法发生偏差,所以非改不可:

  “……and the permission for bright students to progress according to their ability.”

  ③ It may seem a good idea to try to sell your house. But there are many pitfalls: improper pricing (too high or too low); guessing where to place the ads; showing your house to people who may or may not be interested; and finally, knowing who may or may not be qualified to buy.

  首先,这句里提到四个陷阱,其中三个用动名词形式,另一个却用“形容词+动名词”(improper pricing),有点格格不入,必须稍作调整:pricing too high or too low.此外,这段话有些唆,应该进一步修饰:

  “……setting prices too high or too low; guessing where to place the ads; showing your house to the interest group; and knowing the eligible buyers.”

  句子成分不对应,不平衡的例子,比比皆是。现在请看看下列这几个句子,并辨其正误:

  ④a. Helen is tall, with big eyes, and has a pleasant face.
   b. Helen is tall, big-eyed and pleasant.

  ⑤a. Betty has long hair and was very graceful.
   b. Betty has both long hair and great grace.
   c. Betty is long-haired as well as graceful.

  ⑥a. Today, a secretary must be very pleasant in appearance and has unusual intelligence.
   b. Today, a secretary must be very pleasant and unusually intelligent.
   c. Today, a secretary must have very pleasant appearance and unusual intelligence.

  ⑦a. Young girls like romantic novels with exciting actions and they keep them thrilling.
   b. Young girls like romantic novels which have exciting actions and which keep them thrilling.

  ④a—⑦a间的成分不平衡;④b—⑦b者就对应。

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