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英语讲义【76】副词分句

2007-07-04 17:02陈清霖

  在英语三种分句中,副词分句种类最多,用途最广。就其功用或意义说,副词分句可以用来表示“时间、原因、条件、让步、地点、目的、结果、方式、比较”等。

  时间副词分句由从属连词 when, since, before, after, while, as soon as 等引导。例如:

  ● Give me a call when you are free.
  ● Jim had done his homework before he went to class.
  ● As soon as the speaker entered the auditorium, the audience clapped.

  原因副词分句由从属连词 because, since, as 等引导。例如:

  ● Helen got the job because she was the most suitable candidate.
  ● As he was tired, he went to bed early.

  条件副词分句由从属连词 if, unless 等引导。例如:

  ● If you try hard, you are sure to improve.
  ● We will leave as planned unless we are informed otherwise.

  让步副词分句由从属连词 though, although 等引导。例如:

  ● Though David was not well, he came to work as usual.
  ● I enjoy walking although I do not go out as much as I used to.

  地点副词分句由从属连词 where, wherever 等引导。例如:

  ● Where there is oppression, there is resistance.
  ● In today's world, you can go wherever you want.

  目的副词分句由从属连词 so that, in order that 等引导。例如:

  ● Please speak louder, so that all can hear you.
  ● The students work hard in order that they can pass.

  结果副词分句由从属连词 so……that, such……that 等引导。例如:

  ● The weather is so hot that I don't like to go out of doors.
  ● China is such a large country that it takes time to make it a fully developed nation.

  方式副词分句由从属连词 as, just as……so 等引导。例如:

  ● We will do as we are told.
  ● Just as men sow, so will they reap.

  比较副词分句由从属连词 as, than 等引导。例如:

  ● Dick is as smart as you (are).
  ● We know you better than he does.

  这里有几点要注意。第一、当副词分句在句首出现时,要用逗号和主句隔开。第二、习惯上,先出现的分句的主语要用名词,后出现的用代词,如:

   Before John went out, he locked the door.

  第三、有些副词分句可以在句首,就最好把它们放在句首,主句在后。这样可以使人更注意主句中的内容,达到较好的传讯效益。例如:

   a. Tom was absent as he was ill.
   b. As Tom was ill, he was absent.

  a. The boys ran home when it rained.
   b. When it rained, the boys ran home.

  a. You will do well if you surge ahead.
   b. If you surge ahead, you will do well.

  a. Betty did not get the job though she was interviewed.
   b. Though Betty was interviewed, she did not get the job.

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