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英语讲义【15】无须冠词的名词

2007-07-03 17:03陈清霖

  一则征聘广告的结尾这样写:

  “Suitable candidates will be offered a very attractive terms which cannot be refused.”

  这句话的意思,一目了然,可惜其中有个不该有的语法错误;那就是“a very attractive terms”中的“terms”是个复数名词,不需要有冠词,和不定冠词“a”连用,更是不合语法规则。

  为了避免同样的错误出现,现在试把不需要冠词的场合列下,以作参考:

  ㈠复数名词,如:

  1. Doctors cure patients.

  2. Axes are tools for cutting wood.

  3. Those people are teachers, not students.

  ㈡物质名词,如:

  4. Gold is precious.

  5. Air is indispensable to animals.

  6. Electricity is a form of energy.

  ㈢抽象名词,如:

  7. Unity is strength.

  8. Knowledge is power.

  9. Samson is a man of bravery.

  ㈣有关餐食的名词,如:

  10. Dinner is ready.

  11. After lunch, you may take a nap.

  12. What do you eat for breakfast?

  ㈤有关四季的名词,如:

  13. I like autumn most.

  14. Do you have to teach in summer?

  15. Winter is over; will spring be far away?

  ㈥有关游戏和运动的名词,如:

  16. Fandi can play soccer very well.

  17. Do yo like to play chess?

  18. Is bridge a popular game here?

  ㈦有关疾病的名词,如:

  19. Old People tend to suffer from diabetes.

  20. Many women are inflicted with rheumatism.

  ㈧有关学科或带“-ism”后缀的名词,如:

  21. Mathematics and physics are difficult subjects.

  22. Which do you prefer, imperialism or communism?

  ㈨在“by + 交通工具”的片语里,如:

  23. Shall we walk or go by bus?

  24. The tourists came by plane.

  25. Do you like to travel by land or by sea?

  ㈩关于“人、节日、地理、建筑物、语言”等的专有名词,如:

  26. Tony wants to see Susan.

  27. Christmas is a widely celebrated festival.

  28. Europe is more advanced than Africa.

  29. Do you know where Buckingham Palace is?

  30. Is Japanese similiar to Chinese?

  上述是无须冠词的例句,但当专有名词之前有修饰语时,可以用定冠词(例(31)-(32));当抽象名词被形容词、短语或分句修饰时,也可以有适当的冠词(例(33)-(36)):

  31. Caesar was an ancient hero. Do you admire the great Caesar and his deeds?

  32. We enjoy reading the great works written by the immortal Shakespeare.

  33. A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.

  34. The wisdom of Solomon was recorded in history.

  35. Tom showed a courage worthy of special mention.

  36. I find it hard to forget the generosity with which David treated me.

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