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英语讲义【54】具副词功能的过去分词短语

2007-07-04 16:16陈清霖

  和现在分词及短语一样,过去分词(past participles)或过去分词短语(past participial phrases)也可以充当副词,修饰谓语动词。

  过去分词短语可以表达下列四种意思:

  ㈠方法或活动方式,如:

  ● He walked up and down, lost in thought.

  ● I sat before the desk until after mid-night, absorbed in writing.

  ● Surrounded by a host of fans, the film star left the airport excitedly.

  ㈡原因,如:

  ● Greatly disappointed, some staff decided to leave the place.

  ● Taken by surprise, the enemy surrendered.

  ㈢时间,如:

  ● Born and bred in a turbulent age, the older generation of people experienced all sorts of hardships.

  ● Thrown to the floor, the boy regained his footing a few minutes later.

  ㈣条件,如:

  ● Given more time, the slow learners would have done better.

  ● Criticised by someone else, Tony would not have flared up like that.

  除了直接修饰动词之外,过去分词或短语也可以和连词合组成短语,表示下列四种意思:

  ⒈由 when, whenever, while, until 等连词引导,表示“ 时间”,如:

  ● When asked about his previous job, Bill said he had been a motor mechanic.

  ● Susan seldom speaks in class until spoken to.

  ⒉由 where, wherever 连词引导,表示“地点”,如:

  ● Mosquitoes should be completely exterminated where found.

  ● Retirees in good health should be invited to return to work wherever needed.

  ⒊由 if, unless 引导,表示“条件”,如:

  ● If kept for too long, some medicines will lose their effectiveness.

  ● We have made a point of not attacking unless attacked.

  ⒋由 though, although, even though 连词引导,表示“让步 ”,如:

  ● Though warned of the danger, they still went mountaineering.

  ● Even though defeated for a second time, our team did not give up hope for the ultimate victory.

  此外,过去分词短语还可以和介词“with”或“without”连用,具副词作用。如:

  ● With the water pipe choked, there wasn't any more water for use.

  ● Without anything left in the kitchen, the Wangs decided to eat out.

  最后,过去分词短语,在适当情况下,可以有自己的主语而变成独立结构(the absolute construction),如:

  ● The old man listened, his head inclined to one side.

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