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英语讲义【50】具副词功能的现在分词短语

2007-07-04 15:16陈清霖

  在英语里,我们可以用现在分词(present participles)或现在分词短语(present participial phrases)充当副词修饰动词。这是英语中一种极为普遍的句子结构,在书面语中,用得甚多,表示的意义也有好几种。现在分述如下:

  ⒈表示办事方法或行动方式,如:  ● Feeling his way along the rocks, the mountaineer reached the peak of the hill.
  ● Flinging her arm before her face, the small girl pretended to burst into tears.

  ⒉表示伴随状况,如:  ● The two men shook hands, smiling at each other.
  ● The demonstrators marched through the street, chanting political slogans.
  ● Irene saw her husband glance toward her, disapproving.
  ● A few friends of the victim stood outside the house, still with a sense of shock, conversing quietly.

  ⒊表示原因,如:  ● Living in a city, we enjoy a lot of modern amenities.
  ● Meeting with a cold reception at his relatives' house, the old man left in a rage.
  ● Having heard the story before, Joelle did not heed it any more.
  ● Being written in a hurry, the essay was fraught with errors.

  ⒋.表示时间,如:  ● Reaching the dilapidated castle, they slowed down their pace.
  ● Finding the hidden treasure , they discussed how to divide it.
  ● Arriving at the seaside , the picnickers pitched their tent for the night.

  这里要注意的是:用来表示时间的分词短语必须摆在句首,用以说明分词短语中的时间一过,谓语动词的时间便开始。

  如果要强调分词短语的时间比谓语动词的时间早些过去,那末分词短语里的时态就要用完成时态(perfect tense),如:
  ● Having realised that they had lagged behind , Tom and Harry started to quicken their pace.
  ● The couple, having seen their son off, returned home without saying anything.

  ⒌表示“目的、结果”的意思,如:  ● The two parties sat down to talk, hoping to avoid further conflict.
  ● We have talked a lot about language teaching, often forgetting that it is learning that really matters.
  ● The old man's hair came out by the roots, leaving him bald.

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