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英语讲义【128】名词修饰动词

2007-07-05 14:37陈清霖

  在《名词修饰名词》一文里,谈到名词如何修饰另一名词,作用和形容词同。

  这期要谈名词或名词短语修饰动词;这样的角色和副词或副词短语一样。

  首先,名词或其短语可代替介词短语修饰动词,如:

  (1) Member countries began their ministerial meeting on Monday.→Member countries began their ministerial meeting Monday.
  (2) Those fashionable cars were made in Japan.→Those fashionable cars were Japan made.
  (3) Tom is heavier than his brother by five pounds.→Tom is five pounds heavier than his brother.

  其次,名词或其短语可以代替副词分句修饰动词或形容词,如:

  (4) The metal sheets are as thin as paper.→The metal sheets are paper thin.
  (5) The water has turned as pink as rose.→The water has turned rose pink.

  名词或名词短语修饰动词的语意有三:

  ⒈表示程度

  这类修饰语大多数是表示数或量的名词。例如:

  (6) Today's temperature rose five degrees.
  (7) Tom's car got bogged down in the mud and could not move a step further.
  (8) The first underground train came five minutes fast.
  (9) The zoo is only two miles away from our working place.

  ⒉表示方式。例如:

  (10) Don't talk to us that way.
  (11) Everyone is free to do it his own way.
  (12) The kidnappers tied the boy hand and foot.
  (13) The boss turned the illegal worker out of the factory bag and baggage.
  (14) The government should move heaven and earth to prevent such events from recurring.

  ⒊表示时间。例如:

  (15) Wait a minute here!
  (16) The emergency meeting lasted two hours.
  (17) Their grand daughters come to see them once a week.

  值得特别注意的是某些名词与一些表示“缺乏、具有、可能产生、具有……倾向”意义的形容词或过去分词组成一体时,也起副词作用,表示“在……方面,缺乏、具有、可能产生、具有……倾向”的意思。例如:

  (18) The office was kept dust-free.(没有尘埃)
  (19) They are knowledge-rich and resourceful.(知识丰富)

  这些组合体常常是新颖的合成形容词(compound adjectives),如:

  (20) Don't go to live in trouble-prone countries.(易出现麻烦的)
  (21) How can the poor survive in grain-deficient villages?(缺谷粮的)
  (22) Some big cities have been pollution-ridden beyond control.(充满污染的)

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