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英语讲义【22】被动语态的动词

2007-07-03 17:12陈清霖

  主动语态比被动语态直接而有力,多用主动语态,可以使文章充满朝气,呈现活力。在下列两组句子中, (b)比(a)有力:

  (1) a.My first visit to New Zealand will always be remembered by me.
     b. I will always remember my first visit to New Zealand.

  (2) a.The crowing of cocks could be heard at dawn.
     b. The cocks' crow came with dawn.

  虽然如此,在某些情况下,非用被动语态不可。前此已提过这事,这里不再重述。这里只有指出其中一点,就是有些动词,如 "base, schedule, expect, suppose" 等,通常以被动语态形式出现。

  例如:

  (1)This survey was based on facts.
  (2)The last train is scheduled to leave at 9pm.
  (3)You are expected to come on time.
  (4)All are supposed to work hard.

  除了上述这些动词之外,还有十种,几乎都以被动式出现。

  (一)有关“疾病”的动词,如:
  (1)Helen's left lung is infected.
  (2)He is confined to the house by illness.
  (3)The old man was seized with sudden chest pains.

  (二)有关“疲乏”的动词,如:
  (4) I am completely exhausted after the game.
  (5)Tom was done up after the race.

  (三)有关“喜乐”的动词,如:
  (6)The children were fascinated by the toys.
  (7)We were delighted to hear the good news.
  (8) I am very pleased to see you here.

  (四)有关“延迟”或“障碍”的动词,如:
  (9)The workers were held up by the heavy rain.
  (10)The road was blocked by ice.
  (11)The train was delayed by 30 minutes.

  (五)有关“惯性动作”的动词,如:
  (12)Tom is addicted to smoking.
  (13)Foreign workers are quite used to hard work.

  (六)有关“烦恼”或“焦急”的动词,如:
  (14)Who was upset by John?
  (15)Mother was annoyed to know this.

  (七)有关“惊奇”或“震惊”的动词,如:
  (16) I was surprised to see him here.
  (17)All were shocked to hear the bad news.

  (八)有关“包围”的动词,如:
  (18)The troops were surrounded.
  (19)Troy was besieged.

  (九)有关“沾污”或“污化”的动词,如:
  (20)Judy's reputation is tarnished.
  (21)The water was contaminated with oil.

  (十)有关“害怕”或“混乱”的动词,如:
  (22)All were frightened out of their wits.
  (23)He was puzzled about what to do next.

  要注意的一点是,上面这十类动词有些已渐渐失去了动词力量,转化为惯用语。

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