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小额钱债法庭

2007-08-23 14:03   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

Small Claims Court小额钱债法庭

  If you are enable to resolve your complaint through wish to use the Small Claims Court.Known popularly as the people's court,this informal and inexpensive forum is designed to help yourself disputes of $2,000 or less without the aid of an attorney.

  The atmosphere of Small Claims Court is informal, and the rules of the Court are simple. You can sue or be sued in this Court without being represented by a lawyer, because the more formal procedures characteristic of other courts are not required. Instead, you are allowed to present your own evidence and speak in layperson's terms.

  By choosing a Small Claims Court, you waive all right to a jury trial. Furthermore, it is only in very specific instance that you have the right to appeal to a higher court if the Clerks does not find in your favor. Defendants, however, always have the right to appeal.

  If the other party has a lawyer, you are not necessarily at a disadvantage because you are representing yourself. The participation by lawyers representing parties may be limited in a manner consistent with the simple and informal adjudication of the controversy. It is the Clerk's duty to ensure all parties a fair hearing.

  To file suit, obtain the appropriate form, called the Statement of Claim and Notice, from the Small Claims Court in your district. Fill out the form completely and accurately.

  The Clerk will provide a copy of your completed Statement of Claim and Notice form, which will show you the date and time of trial. You will also receive a Docket Number, or reference number for your suit. Use this number to identify your case when you contact the Clerk.

  A week before the hearing, call the Clerk to ensure that the Defendant has received the Statement of Claim and Notice. The Clerk will inform you if the case was postponed, or if the Defendant has filed an answer. Obtain a copy and use the Defendant's answer to prepare your case more effectively.

  To refresh your memory, prepare a chronological summary of events and relevant facts to facilitate your presentation. Pull together all the evidence that will help you prove your case, such as contracts, letters, canceled checks, receipts, leases, estimates and actual damaged goods or photographs. Bring certified copies of the applicable Attorney General's regulations if you are citing a specific violation.

  If you are suing under the Consumer Protection Act, Chapter 93A, notify the Clerk of that fact and that you are entitled to double or treble damages under that statute. Bring a copy of your 30-day demand letter.

  You may also wish to schedule witnesses who can verify your claims or confirm your statements. If a witness refuses to participate, the Clerk can help subpoena him or her. A subpoena is a court notice ordering a witness to appears in court on a trial date.

  Arrive at the Court House at least an hour before your case is heard. When your case is called, you, the Defendant, and any witnesses must be sworn in. Then, the Clerk will hear each side of the case allowing each side to develop the story with evidence and witness participation. The Plaintiff or person suing, presents the case first. The presentation should be brief, well-organized and emotionally controlled. Then, the Defendant, or person being sued presents his or her version of the case. Always speak directly to the Clerk.

  Don't argue with the Defendant in Court, or interrupt his or her presentation.

  If the Defendant defaults, or does not show up, and you appear for trial, you automatically win. However, you must show the Court proof of your claim. (If the Defendant appears for the trial and the Plaintiff fails to appear, the case will be dismissed. If neither Plaintiff nor Defendant appears for trial, the claim must also be dismissed. )

  After hearing the arguments of both parties, the Clerk may make an immediate decision, or may require more time for deliberation, which would leave the case Under Advisement and you would be notified by mail of the final decision. If the Clerk finds in favor of the Defendant, then the case will be over and you will receive no payments. You will be required to pay the Court costs for the Defendant. If the decision is for the Plaintiff, the Court will issue a Notice of Judgment and Order that orders the Defendant to pay you the damages and rt entry fee. The Clerk may award you less than your ginal claim.

  Generally, the Defendant has the right to appeal the ision within 10 days. The Defendant must pay an appeal fee and post $100 in cash or certified check or bond unless the Court waives this requirement.

  If the Defendant fails to pay you, then you must inform the Clerk who will issue a Notice to Show Cause you. You then must arrange to have the notice delivered to the Defendant by a county Deputy Sheriff or municipal Constable. The Notice to Show Cause will "indicate the date and time of hearing. At the hearing, the Court will take appropriate action to recover payment.

  Alternatively, you may ask the Clerk for an Execution form? This form allows the county Deputy Sheriff or municipal Constable to seize and sell the Defendant's property to recover the amount owed. Within one year of the Court's decision, a party can apply for relief from the judgment or order. This means that the Court may decide to reverse the decision because of an error or other reasons that the Court finds sufficient. Ask the Clerk if you have any questions about this or other Small Claims Court procedures.

  译文

  如果你不能通过自助或当地消费者保护组织调解来解决你的投诉,那么你可能希望诉诸于小额钱债法庭。它被人们称为老百姓的法庭,这个非正式并且廉价的法庭是被设计来帮助你在没有律师的参与下解决标的为2 000美元或以下争议的场所。

  小额钱债法庭的氛围是非正式的,其规则也是简易的。你可以不由律师代理而去诉或被诉,因为这里不要求其他法庭所具有的正式程序。相反,你被允许出示证据并以非专业人员的语言陈述。

  你一旦选择了小额钱债法庭,你就放弃了由陪审团审判的权利。而且如果书记官并不支持你,那么只有很少情况下你可以向上一级法院上诉。但是被告总是有权上诉的。

  如果对方请了律师,你不一定因为自己代理而处于不利地位。因为法庭争议的判决方法是简易和非正式的,所以律师参与代理当事人的行为受到了限制。书记官的责任就是确保诉讼各方受到公平的审判。

  为了打官司,你必须从小额钱债法庭获得合适的表格,称为索偿书和告知书。你要完整并且精确地填写好表格。

  书记官会交给你一份填妥的索偿书和告知书,上面标明了举行审判的日期和时间。你的官司也会有一个标签号或文件号。在你联系书记官时可以用该号码表明你的案子。

  审前一周,致电书记官,确认被告已收到索偿书和告知书。书记官会通知你案子是否延期,被告是否递交了答辩书。去索取一份被告的答辩书,以此更有效地准备诉讼。

  你必须理清思路,制作一份相关事实和事件概要的流水账,以便于法庭陈述。聚合所有能证明案情的证据,比如合同书、信件、取消的支票、收据、租赁合同、估算单以及实际损毁货物或照片。如果引用一个具体案例,可准备好适用的司法部长规定的批准文本。

  如果你是依据《消费者保护法》第93A条款起诉的,那么必须告知书记官此事,说你依据该法令有权得到双倍或三倍的损害赔偿金。准备好一封30日内的索求信。

  你还可能希望定好证人出庭的日期,他们可以证明你的诉求或证实你的陈述。如果证人拒绝出庭,书记官可以传唤他或她出庭。传唤令就是一份法庭的通知书,它命令证人在审判日出庭作证。

  你至少必须于案件开审前l小时抵达法庭。当你的案子开审时,你、被告还有所有证人必须人庭宣誓。然后,书记官听取各方案情陈述,允许各方以证据和证人证言来推进陈述。原告或起诉人首先陈情。其陈述应该简短,组织完善并且控制情绪。然后,被告或被诉之人陈述其案情。

  必须保持与书记官直接对话。别当庭与被告争执,或打断其陈述。

  如果被告缺席或未能出庭,而你却出庭了,那么你就自动获胜。但是你必须向法庭出示你的诉求证据。(如果被告出庭而原告却未能出庭,那么该案就被驳回。如果原被告双方都未能出庭,那么该案也被驳回。)

  在听取了双方当事人的论点之后,书记官可以当庭作出判决,或可以要求更多时间考虑,这会使案子处于延后思考之中,其最终判决将会用邮件送达。如果书记官的判决支持被告,那么案子结案,原告就无赔偿费可拿。也不要求原告支付被告的诉讼费用。如果判决支持原告,那么法庭会签发一份判决通知令,命令被告支付损害赔偿金和诉讼费用,书记官会判给你少于诉求的赔偿金。

  一般而言,被告有权在l0日内上诉。被告必须支付上诉费,邮寄现金l00美元或有效支票或票据,除非法庭放弃这种要求。

  如果被告未能支付赔偿金,那么你必须告知书记官,他会签发一份强制执行令。然后你必须安排县司法长官或市警察局长送达给被告。该执行令标明了听审的日期和时间。在听审时,法庭将采取适当行动来取得赔偿金。

  或者,你可以问书记官要一份执行表格。该表格授权县司法长官或市警察局长没收并出售被告财物来归还所欠款项。

  在法庭判决一年内,一方当事人可以申请法庭判决或命令的司法救济。这意味着法庭可能因差错或其他足够的理由而决定逆转以前的判决。如果对此或其他小额钱债法庭程序有疑问,可以向书记官询问。

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