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计算机因特网双语阅读

2008-01-23 11:07

  VIEW OF THE INTERNET

  INTERNET

  The Internet is a worldwide network of networks which interconnects computers ranging from the simplest personal computers to the most sophisticated mainframes and supercomputers. This network of networks is used for an extraordinary range of purposes - long distance collaborations, retrieving free software and documents, accessing library catalogs, logging in to supercomputers - the list of current Internet activities and services is large and the range of possible future applications is as unlimited as our imagination.

  The Internet is huge. No one is exactly sure just how huge, but there are over two million connected computers[1]. Because it is in direct communication with satellites far above us, it could even be said that the Internet is already bigger than the Earth. And because the Internet is incredibly complex, there probably isn't a single person who understands everything about it. Remember this if you get confused and you'll probably feel better!

  WHAT IS AN "INTERNET"

  An internet (note the lower case "i") is a computer network which allows computers with distinctive software and hardware to communicate, or "internetwork"[2]. Many kinds of computers can be connected to an internet, and each computer can serve a specialized role, allowing an internet to offer a wide variety of services to its users. For example, you could use one internet computer designed to perform complex calculations and then send the output to another internet computer designed to display colorful graphs.

  WHAT IS "THE INTERNET"

  The Internet is specific kind of internet. In The Internet Passport, the Internet will be defined as the network of networks which follow a set of rules known as the "Internet Protocol (IP) suite".

  But what does this mean to you? It means that any computer which is connected to the Internet can communicate with any other Internet computer thanks to the rules of IP, and that a message sent from one Internet computer to another will get to the intended destination[3]. From the user's perspective, this works much the way the telephone system works. You can dial from your phone to any other phone on the system no matter what kind of telephone you have; you only need to know the phone number of the person you want to reach.

  WHAT IS THE INTERNET USED FOR

  The Internet contains the electronic equivalents of conference rooms and cafes, libraries and bookstores, post offices and telephones, radio and television stations, newspaper and magazines, and a growing variety of services that have no counterparts in "the real world"[4].

  Accessing Computer Resources

  No matter how humble your own computer might be, if it is connected to the Internet you can access the resources of thousands of computers throughout the world. With an Internet connection you can:

  access online library catalogs, w copy computer files or software from archives[5],

  access databases for teaching or research, w obtain free electronic books,

  use educational and information services,

  use directory services to find Internet users, and

  access supercomputer sites.

  Although the Internet is made up of many diverse computers, together they work like one world-wide computer system.

  Communicating with Other People

  People communicating with people is the essence of the Internet. Using the Internet you can:

  exchange electronic mail,

  find people throughout the world who share your interests, and

  engage in discussions and collaborations with other Internet users.

  These services have created a truly global village where people communicate with each other not because they happen to live in the same place, but because they share the same interests. This simple fact has profound consequences for everyone no matter where they live.

  NOTES

  [1] 这是1996年的数字。

  [2] internet是指互联网,internetwork是指网间互连,但二者可以混用。

  [3] 两个that均引导宾语从句。It means that…….,and that………是并列关系。

  [4] 此处contains是转意为支持各种电子设备连入因特网,但必须通过计算机接入。

  [5] archives指计算机挡案库存储器。

  因特网概貌

  因特网

  因特网是一个世界规模的由多个网络连接而成的网络,它所连接的计算机小到最简单的个人电脑,大到最复杂的计算机和超级计算机。该网络的应用范围也特别广—— 远距离合作、检索免费软件和文档、查阅图书馆目录、登录到超级计算机上——目前因特网的功能和业务范围十分广泛,而今后的应用前景正如我们想象的那样是无止境的。

  因特网非常巨大。无人能够准确地说出它有多大,联网计算机已超过两百万台。因为它直接通过远离我们的卫星通信,因而甚至可以说因特网已经比地球还大了。又因为因特网不可思议的复杂,因而很可能没有一个人能对因特网无所不晓。请记住,如果你糊涂了,那你可能会感觉更好。

  什么是互联网

  互联网(注意小写字母i)是一种计算机网络,该网络上的计算机在通信时可以使用不同的软件和硬件。多种计算机都可以连入互联网,每台计算机都可以有一独特作用,于是一个互联网就可以向它的用户提供各式各样的业务。例如,可以用互联网上的一台计算机去完成复杂的计算任务,然后将结果送到另一台计算机以显示彩色图形。

  什么是因特网

  因特网是一种专用互联网。因特网在它的证书中定义为网络的网络,该网络使用了一组叫做互联网协议簇的协议(IP)。

  但对你来说,这意味着什么呢?这表明,由于IP协议的作用,连接到因特网上的计算机可以与因特网上任何其他计算机通信,并且从一台因特网上的计算机送往另一台计算机上的信息,将到达指定的目的地。从用户的角度来看,其工作方式很像电话系统的工作方式。在电话系统内,可以从你的电话机拨打任何其他电话,而不管你使用什么样的电话机;你只需知道对方的电话号码即可。

  因特网的用途

  因特网包含了会议室和咖啡屋、图书馆和书店、邮政局和电话局、无线电台和电视台、报社和杂志社的电子业务,以及“现实世界”中还没有出现的各种业务。

  访问计算机资源

  不论你的计算机档次如何低,只要你连入因特网,你就可以访问遍及全世界的成千上万台计算机上的资源。使用因特网,可以:

  访问在线图书馆目录

  从计算机档案库存储器中拷贝文件或软件

  访问教学或科研数据库

  获取免费电子图书

  使用教育和信息服务

  使用目录服务以查找因特网用户

  访问超级计算机站点

  虽然因特网是由许多各式各样的计算机组成的,但它们就像是一个遍布全世界的计算机系统一样一起工作着。

  与其他人通信

  因特网的实质是人与人之间的通信。使用因特网,可以:

  交换电子邮件

  查找世界上与你志趣相投的人

  与因特网的其他用户进行讨论与合作

  这些业务已经形成了一个真正的地球村,在那里人们相互交流不是因为碰巧住在一起,而是因为他们有相同的兴趣。这一简单的事实对于每一个人来讲,都是意味深长的,不管他住在哪里。

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