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CAPITAL STOCK股本

2008-05-22 15:03

  A corporation is a separate legal entity chartered by the state or, in some cases (such as the formation of a national bank), by the federal government. The liability of corporate shareholders is usually limited to their ownership investment. Unlike single proprietorships and partnerships, corporations must report paid-in equity capital separately from accumulated earnings, called retained earnings. Distributions to shareholders are limited by the amount of retained earnings and other capital specified by state law. It is in the area of owners' equity that differences arise between accounting for a corporation and accounting for a sole proprietorship or partnership.

  The amounts and kinds of stock that a corporation may issue are enumerated in the company' s charter. Provision may be made for several classes of stock. The charter specifies the maximum number of shares of each class of stock that may be issued. This is the corporation' s authorized stock. Shares that have been sold and issued to stockholders constitute the issued stock of the corporation. Some of this stock may be repurchased by the corporation. Shares actually held by stockholders are called outstanding stock, while those reacquired by the corporation are treasury stock.

  Common stock represents the basic ownership class of stock for a corporation. Preferred stock may differ from common stock in any of several characteristics. Typically, preferred stocks have some type of dividend preference and a prior claim to assets in liquidation. When the board of directors declares a distribution of earnings, preferred stockholders are entitled to receive a certain annual amount of dividends before the common stockholders receive any distribution. The amount is usually specified in the preferred stock contract as a percentage of the face value (called par value) of the stock or in dollars per share if the stock does not have a par value. Preferred dividends are usually cumulative. Ordinarily, preferred stockholders do not participate further in distributions made by the corporation. In rare circumstances, however, the stock contract may make the preferred a participating stock. Preferred stock may also be partially participating. Ordinarily, preferred shareholders do not have the right to vote in the election of directors. Sometimes, a preferred stock contract confers full or partial voting rights under certain conditions——as when dividends have not been paid for a specified period of time.

  In the balance sheet, the par values or stated values of different forms of stock (preferred, common) are shown separately, as is any excess or deficiency received for the shares. These differences are called premium and discount, respectively, for par value stock. However, shares are rarely issued at a discount. For no-par stock with a stated value, an appropriate title-for example, paid-in capital in excess of stated value- describes the difference.

  Treasury stock may be purchased for a variety of reasons, including to reissue them to officers and employees in profit sharing schemes or stock-option plans. Whatever the purpose, the corporation is in reality reducing owner capital for a period of time. It is commonly recorded at cost and shown as a deduction from total stockholders' equity in the balance sheet.

  股份有限公司是独立的法律主体,需经所在州批准创立,在某些情况下,则需由联邦政府批准创立(例如全国性银行的创设)。公司股东的偿债责任通常以其业主权投资为限。与独资和合伙不同,公司必须把缴入的业主权资本与累积的盈利分开报告,其累积的盈利称为“留存收益”。对股东的分配限制在留存收益的数额和州公司法具体规定的其他资本之内。正是在业主权益这一领域,出现了公司会计与独资或合伙会计之间的不同。

  公司可以发行的股票金额和种类应该列举在公司的章程中,可以规定发行几类股票,章程要具体确定可能发行的每类股票的最高股数,这是公司的额定股本。已出售和发行给股东的股数构成公司的发行股本。发行股本中的一部分可能由公司重行购回,实际为股东持有的股份称为外发股本,由公司重新取得的那些股份则称为库存股份。

  普通股代表公司的基本业主权股本。优先股可能在几种特征上与普通股不同。典型的情况是,优先股具有在股利分配上的某种优先权,并且在公司清算时对资产有优先要求权。当董事会宣布分配盈利时,优先股股东有权在普通股股东获得任何分配之前逐年派得一定金额的股利,这一金额通常要具体规定在优先股契约中,它可以表现为股票面值的一定百分比,如果股票没有面值,则可规定为每股若干金额。优先股股利通常是累积的,一般地说,优先股股东不再参与公司的进一步股利分配,但在少数情况下,通过优先股契约中的规定,可以使优先股成为可参与分配的或可部分地参与分配的。在选举董事时,优先股股东一般不享有表决权,有时,优先股契约则可能给予优先股股东在特定条件下的完全或部分表决权,例如在规定的一段时间内未能发放股利时。

  在资产负债表中,不同类型的股票(各种优先股和普通股)的面值或设定价值要分开列示,从这些股份上收到的超出额或不足额也应如此。对有面值的股票来说,这些差额分别称为溢价和折价,但股份很少折价发行。对无面值但有设定价值的股票来说,则要用诸如“超过设定价值的缴入资本”等相应的名称来表述。

  库存股份的购买可能有各种各样的原因,其中包括按照利润分配方案或购股权计划重新发行给高级职员和雇员。不论其目的如何,公司则确实在一段时期内减少了业主资本。库存股份一般按成本入账,在资产负债表中,应列示为从股东权益总额中扣减的项目。

  Notes:

  1.It is in the area of owners' equity that differences arise between accounting for a corporation and accounting for a sole proprietorship or partnership.

  为了强调in the area of owners' equity,用it (可称为强调词)作形式主语,连词that引导的从句是真正主语。如果不用强调的句型结构,原句就是the differences between accounting for a corporation and accounting for a sole proprietorship or partnership arise in the area of owners' equity.

  2.Sometimes, a preferred stock contract confers full or partial voting rights under certain conditions——as when dividends have not been paid for a specified period of time.

  (1)破折号后由介词as引导的复杂结构,是为了补充说明而加的插入语。

  (2)介词as的宾语是由连接副词when引导的从句。

  3.In the balance sheet, the par values or stated values of different forms of stock (preferred, common) are shown separately, as is any excess or deficiency received for the shares.

  (1)全句包含一个用连词as引导的方式状语从句。

  (2)这一状语从句是倒装结构。从句中的主语是any excess or deficiency received for the shares (过去分词短语received…修饰excess or deficiency)。句中的谓语是is(shown separately,这两词省略)

  4.Whatever the purpose, the corporation is in reality reducing owner capital for a period of time.

  (1)全句包含一个从连接代词Whatever引导的让步状语从句。

  (2)这一状语从句中的谓语动词may be 被省略,即Whatever the purpose(may be)。

  5.If the treasury shares were reissued at a lower price, the deficiency in capital would be offset against previously recorded paid-in capital from treasury stock transactions or, if that is not possible, against retained earnings.

  (1)全句中包含一个用连词if引导的表示虚拟条件的从句。

  (2)主句和从句中的谓语动词would be和were reissued都属虚拟语气。

  (3)主句中还包含一个插入语if that is not possible.

  6.If a balance sheet were prepared after these transactions, the stockholder's equity section would appear as shown below.

  (1)全句包含一个用连词if引导的表示虚拟条件的状语从句。

  (2)从句中的谓语动词were prepared 和主句中的谓语动词would appear都属虚拟语气。

  7.Preferred stocks preferred stock the amounts their owners would receive if the corporation liquidated.

  (1)全句是被动结构。即从“We assign preferred stock the amounts…”转换而来,间接宾语改作主语(preferred stock),谓语动词用被动语态(preferred stock),直接宾语则保留不动(the amounts…)。

  (2)句中修饰the amounts的是定语从句(that)their…if…,关系代词that在整个从句内作谓语动词would receive的宾语,被省略。

  (3)这一定语从句是虚拟条件句,其谓语动词would receive和用if引导的条件状语从句中的谓语动词liquidated.都属虚拟语气。

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