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美国政治制度的发展历史

2008-06-16 14:22

  1.The American Constitution is the oldest written constitution in the world. It was draw up in 1787 and went into effect in 1789.美国宪法是世界上最早的成文宪法,它起草于1787年,生效于1789年。

  2.In 1787,Congress called for a meeting of delegate from all the states to revise the Articles of Confederation.1787年,国会召开各州代表参加的大会,主要目的是修改有明显缺点的《联邦条款》。

  3.The government is divided into three branched: the legislative ,the executive ,and the judicial. Each branch has part of the powers but not all the power.美国政府被分为3部分:立法机构,行政机构和司法机构。

  4.In either case, amendments must have the approval of three-fourths of the states before they enter into force.有两种情可以提出修改宪法条款,但不管是哪种,修正案必须经过3/4的批准才能生效。

  5.The President of the U.S is the head of the executive branch and the head of the state elected by the whole nation. The Constitution requires the President to be a natural-born American citizen at least 35 years of age. The president election was held every 4 years .宪法规定总统必须是美国本土出生的美国公民,至少年满35岁,总统选举每四年举行一次。

  6. In American ,the “winner-take-all” system applies in all states expect Maine.在美国,嬴者全赢的制度适用于除缅因州外的各州。

  7.The electors of all fifty states and the District of Columbia-a total of 538 persons-comprise what is known as the Electoral College. To be successful, a candidate for the Presidency must receive 270 votes.50个州加上哥伦比亚特区共有538位总统候选人,他们组成选举团,要成为美国总统,候选人则要获得270票。

  8.The presidential term of 4 years begin on Jan 20 following the November election, The president publicly takes an oath of office, which is administered by the Chief Justice of the U.S. A president can be elected to office only twice.美国总统任期为4年,每位总统任期最多只能两届,总统宣誓就职仪式是由美国首席娃哈哈官主持的。

  9. Article I of the Constitution grants all legislative power of the federal government to a Congress composed of two chambers, a Senate and a House of Representatives. The Senate is composed of 2 members from each state, Membership in the House is based on population and its size is therefore not specified in the Constitution.国会由参议院和众议院组成,参议院由各州派出两名议员共同组成,众议院成员数则按各州人口及大小而定,因此众义员数宪法没有具体规定。

  10. The Constitution requires that U.S. Senators must be at least 30 years of age, citizens of the U.S for at least 9 years, and residents of the states from which they are elected. The senatorial term is 6 years, and every 2 years one-third of the Senate stands for re-election.宪法规定美国参议员必须是年满30岁有美国公民资格9年以上的公民,并且是选其为议员的州的居民,参议员任期为6年,且每月年改选1/3的议员。

  11. Menber of the House of Representative must be at least 25, citizens for 7 years, and residents of the states which send them to Congress. Today, the House is composed of 435 members. Since members of the House serve two-year terms, the life of a Congress is considered to be 2 years.宪法规定美国众议员必须是年满25岁有美国公民资格7年以上的公民,并且是选其为议员的州的居民,现在,众议院由来35名议员组成,由于众议员任期为2年,所以国会任期往往被认为是2年。

  12. Each hours of the Congress has the power to introduce legislation on any subject, except revenue bills which must first come from the House of Representatives.除了税收法案必须首先由众议院提出,国会的两院各自有权就任何提议立法。

  13. The Constitution provides that the Vice president shall be president of the Senate. He has no vote, except in a case of a tie. The House of Representatives choose its own presiding officer-the Speaker of the House.宪法规定由美国副总统担任参议院议长,议长不参加投票,除非出现两派票数相等的情况,众议院则选出他自己的主持官员,-众议院议长。

  14. According to the Constitution, the judicial power of the U.S shall be vested in one Supreme Court. The judicial system has evolved into the present structure: the Supreme Court, 11 court of appeals, 91 district courts, and 3 courts of special jurisdiction. U.S.judges are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.根据宪法规定,美国的司法权属于最高法院,司法体系结构为:最高法院,11个上诉法院,91个地方法院,3个有特殊司法权的法院,美国的法官是由总统任命并由参议院批准的。

  15. The Supreme Court is the highest court of the U.S and is the only organ which has the power to interpret the Constitution The Supreme Court at present consists of a Chief Justice and 8 Associate Justices.最高法院是美国最高等的法院,也是惟一有权解释的机构,目前法院由一名首席娃哈哈官和颜悦色名助理法官组成。

  16. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in only two kinds of cases: those involving foreign dignitaries, and those to which a state in a party.高等法院最初只对两种案件拥有司法权:涉及国外达官贵人,一个州为一方当事人。

  17. In general, American has a two-party system. There are two major political parties in America: the Democrats and the Republicans. There have been four periods in the history of political parties in American.一般说来,美国实行的是两党制,两大主要政党为:民主党和共和党,美国政党的历史可分为四个时期。

  18. The first period of the party system in American refer to the appearance of the Federalists and the Anti-federalists. The third phase of the two-party system ran from the 1860s to the 1920s with the Republican Party dominating the political scene for most of the time.美国政党制的第一阶段出现了两个主要党派,联邦派各反联邦派,第三阶段从容不迫9世纪60年代到达9世纪20年代,绝大部分时间是共和党执政。(2002,21题)

  19. In the 28 terms of the House of Representatives from 1933 to 1989,the Democrats enjoyed a majority of 26 terms, in the Senate, the Democrats had a majority for 23 terms.从1933年到1989年的确届众议院中,民主党在于6届中拥有多数席位,在参议院中民主党在于23届中拥有多数席位。

  20. After the 1828 election of Andrew Jackson, the Democratic-Republican party split. The main faction, led by Andrew Jackson, called themselves the Democratic Party, while the faction opposed to Jackson formed the Whig party in 1834.1828年安德鲁。杰克逊当选总统后,民主共和党分裂,由安德鲁。杰克逊领导的主派自称为民主党,反对杰克逊的一派于1834年另立辉格党

相关热词:美国 概况
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