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中国传统医学的翻译问题

2008-06-02 17:26   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

Research on English Translation of TCM

  1.  Chuan-Yue NIU (Foreign Language Education Center, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203)

  2.  La-Ping WANG (College of Foreign Languages, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200233, China )

  3月份以来,应邀参加了一些有关中医对外翻译及中医术语英语翻译规范化的国内、国际学术会议,听取了各方关于中医术语英语翻译问题的意见和建议,受益可谓颇丰,然而困惑却也甚隆。因为每个人对翻译的体会和对相关概念的理解总是不尽相同的,所以研中自然有讨,论中难免有争,这其实是很自然的。然而如何研,如何讨,如何论,如何争,却是很有些讲究的。振臂一呼,一时可能飞砂走石,却终属意气用事之举;义愤填膺,当下也许翻江倒海,但终为强弩末势之态。

  静观近来关于中医术语英译问题的研讨和论争,总不免想起庄子《齐物论》的忠告:“夫大道不称,大辩不言,大仁不仁,大廉不谦,大勇不忮。道昭不道,言辩不及,仁常不周,廉清而不信,勇忮而不成。”《山海经·南山经》说:“有木焉,其状如谷而黑理,其华四照,其名曰迷谷,佩之不迷。”真希望能采得迷谷一枝,常佩胸前,以防论争之际迷失自己。会议期间,曾信笔涂鸦了一些杂感,今选录几则,串掇为文,借以表达自己对相关问题的理解。

  1    内涵是纲,其余皆目

  近有媒体报道,云南学者戈叔亚经过近8年的艰苦努力,终于找到了抗战时期一外国记者拍摄的滇缅公路上的著名险境——24拐。所谓“24拐”,指的是位于云南省境内、有24个拐弯的滇缅公路的一段。多年来,外国记者当年拍摄的那幅著名的照片已经成为滇缅公路的标志,海内外人士提到滇缅公路时,自然而然地想到或提到“24拐”,但却从来没有人实际考察过“24拐”的具体方位。为了深入地研究滇缅公路的历史及其在中国抗战中所发挥的巨大作用,戈叔亚从1995年开始寻找“24拐”原址。然而当他踏遍了云南境内与滇缅公路相关的山山水水时,却没有能够“按图”索到“骥”。

  “著名的'24拐'究竟在哪里呢?”戈叔亚感到迷惑不解。照片上的景色如此逼真明确,现实中为何找不到呢?想到这里,戈叔亚产生了一个大胆的想法:“'24拐'会不会根本就不在云南境内呢?”于是他循着自己的这个大胆的设想,开始了新一轮的考察,终于在贵州省找到了与原照片一摸一样的奇境——“24拐”。海内外人士津津乐道了半个多世纪的滇缅公路“24拐”,其实根本就不在滇境!这一发现令戈叔亚无比惊讶,也震惊了海内外史学界。

  一个在全球误传了半个世纪的有关滇缅公路的史话,就此得以名正而言顺。虽然史学界对此感到无比的遗憾,然而历史总归是历史,事实总归是事实,容不得半点虚假。这样“天翻地覆”的变故在史学研究中可谓屡见不鲜。在译学界,这样的实例其实也是不胜枚举,有些逐步被正名了,而有些却仍然在以讹传讹,似乎永无直面读者之日。

  会前得到一部由西方一汉学家编写的汉英英汉中医辞典。粗略翻阅了一下,感到编者在编写这部辞典时,的确花费了很大精力,几乎可以用字斟句酌、精益求精的评语来评价其翻译。这当然是就其翻译态度而言的,并非对其翻译准确性的评判。事实上,该君的翻译在很多方面都存在着这样或那样值得商榷之处,有的地方的翻译与原文几乎有“离题万里”之差距。正文暂且不表,单看其附录中的一些庞杂内容,便不难洞悉其译笔的虚无之处。在附录中有关针灸穴位的翻译中,他不但将穴位名称按常规予以音译,而且别出心裁地逐一加以意译或直译。这种翻译有无必要,得失如何,暂且不论。单从其对穴位中文名称的解析来看,就存在着许多臆测杜撰的成分。

  比如他将“列缺”穴意译为Broken Sequence(即“断裂的序列”),将丰隆穴意译为Bountiful Bulge.“列缺”真的是“断裂的序列”之意吗?恐怕不能直接照字面释义。在中国古代,“列缺”实际上指的是闪电之神。《淮南子》上即有这样的记载:“雷以电为鞭,电光照处,谓之列缺。”这样看来,所谓的“列缺”,古人实际上指的是打雷时电光闪射之处。后来,“列缺”就逐步演变成了“电神”的称谓。所以明人程登吉所编著的《幼学琼林》就有“列缺乃电之神,望舒是月之御”之谓。正是因为这个原因,“列缺”在古代还被文人墨客用以指代打雷闪电。如李白《梦游天姥吟留别》一诗中就有“列缺霹雳,丘峦崩摧”之句。所以“列缺”应该是god of lightning,而不是什么broken sequence.当然“丰隆”也不是什么bountiful bulge,而是god of cloud.因为在古代,“丰隆”指云神,正如《幼学琼林》所言“云师系是丰隆,雪神乃是滕六”。

  从这个简单的例子可以看出,不熟悉中国古典文化,不了解诸子百家之学,是很难翻译好中医的。

  2    垂范有度,行之有序

  十五年前我在撰写硕士论文《论中医名词术语英译的标准化》时,亓兴华老师建议我最好将“标准化”改为“统一化”。当时我对亓老师的建议颇不以为然,认为“统一化”不如“标准化”科学。今天看来,我当年所谓的“标准化”的提法是何等的childish, 倒是亓老师的建议愈来愈彰显其实际意义。所以自从1993年出版了《中医翻译导论》之后,特别是1997年出版了《中医英语翻译技巧》以来,我就不再轻言标准化了。

  在今年上半年举行的几次有关中医名词术语英语翻译国际标准化的国内国际会议上,与会学者对中医有关概念翻译的“标准化”问题进行了深入的探讨。比如对“心主血脉”究竟翻译成the heart governing the blood vessels还是the heart governs the blood vessels,论争颇为激烈。甚至于对究竟使用govern还是 control来翻译“主”,也各有异见。对于这样的论争,从语义学研究的角度来看,有其积极的一面。但从术语翻译的“标准化”或“统一化”的要求来看,却未免有些舍本逐末了。

  我在给有关方面的建议中提出,中医名词术语英语翻译的“标准化”,应局限于中医理法方药的核心概念和术语,不应涵盖所有的中医用语。对于中医上的一些比较单一的概念,如阴阳、五行、气血、经络等,翻译时的确应该追求用词的完全同一。但对于一些词组、短语和习惯用语的翻译,却不一定要求字词的完全一致,其实这也是很难做到的。对这类用语的规范化应该着眼于关键字词的统一,避免在无关紧要的功能词上论争不休。以“辨证论治”为例,目前的基本趋势是将“辨”、“证”和“治”这三个字分别译为differentiation,syndrome和treatment.只要这三个关键词的翻译一致,其他的功能词语,如based on, according to等等,可以不必强求同一。

  下面是我向有关方面提供的一份所谓中医名词术语英语翻译“标准化”方案的部分内容。妥否,请读者诸君公鉴。

  阴阳学说:阴阳(Yin and Yang);阴中之阳(Yang within Yin,其他类似术语依此类推):对立(opposition);互根(interdependence);消长(waning and waxing);转化(transformation)

  五行学说:五行(five elements);木(Wood);火(Fire);土(Earth);金(Metal);水(Water);相生(promotion或generation);相克(restriction);相乘(over-restriction或subjugation);相恶(counter-restriction)。

  精、气、神等:精(essence);气(qi或Qi);神(spirit或mind);魂(ethereal soul);魄(corporeal soul);命门(life-gate);正气(healthy-Qi);元(原)气(primordial-Qi);真气(genuine-Qi);宗气(pectoral-Qi);卫气(defensive-Qi);营气(nutrient-Qi);卫分(defensive-phase);气分(Qi-phase);心气(heart-Qi,其他脏腑之气的翻译依此类推);中气(middle-Qi);气化(Qi-transformation);津(thin fluid);液(thick fluid);津液(body fluid);汗(sweat);涎(drool);涕(snivel)。

  脏腑:脏(Zang-organs);腑(Fu-organs);脏腑(Zang-Fu organs或viscera);三焦(triple energizer);奇恒之腑(extraordinary Fu-organs);骨度(bone measurement);心阴(heart-Yin,其他脏腑之阴阳依此类推);运化(transportation and transformation);生化(generation and transformation);肃降(purify and descend);水道(water passage);天癸(Tiangui);先天(innateness);纳气(reception of Qi)。

  经络(十四经名称及穴位名称按WHO所颁布之标准翻译):经(meridian或channel);络(collateral);正经(regular meridians或regular channels);经气(meridian-Qi或channel-Qi);孙络(minute collateral);浮络(superficial collateral);穴位(acupoint)。

  病因:病因(cause of disease);邪(pathogenic factor);六淫(six exogenous pathogenic factors);风(pathogenic wind);寒(pathogenic cold);暑(pathogenic summer-heat);湿(pathogenic dampness);燥(pathogenic dryness);火(pathogenic fire);内风(endogenous wind,其他内生病邪的翻译依此类推);毒(toxin);五志(five emotions);七情(seven emotions);(有形之)痰(sputum);(无行之)痰(phlegm);饮(retained fluid)

  病机:病机(pathogenesis);偏盛(relative predominance);偏衰(relative decline);虚(deficiency);实(excess);(阴阳气血)失调(disharmony);痰迷心窍(confusion of mind by phlegm);胃热(stomach-heat,其他类似结构用语之翻译依此类推)

  诊断:诊法(diagnostic method);证(syndrome);证型(syndrome type);证候(symptoms and signs);四诊合参(synthesis of the four diagnostic methods);望诊(inspection);面色(complexion);望舌(inspection of tongue);舌苔(tongue coating);闻诊(listening and smelling);谵语(delirium);问诊(inquiry);脉诊(pulse diagnosis);切脉(taking pulse);脉象(pulse condition);浮脉(floating pulse);沉脉(deep pulse);迟脉(slow pulse);数脉(rapid pulse);洪脉(surging pulse);细脉(thin pulse);虚脉(empty pulse);实脉(excess pulse);长脉(long pulse);短脉(short pulse);滑脉(slippery pulse);涩脉(unsmooth pulse);弦脉(taut pulse);紧脉(tense pulse);濡脉(soggy pulse);缓脉(moderate pulse);微脉(faint pulse)弱脉(weak pulse);散脉(scattered pulse);芤脉(hollow pulse);革脉(tympanic pulse);牢脉(firm pulse);伏脉(hidden pulse);动脉(throbbing pulse);代脉(intermittent pulse);结脉(knotted pulse);促脉(abrupt pulse);大脉(large pulse);软脉(soft pulse);疾脉(swift pulse);怪脉(strange pulse);寸口(Cunkou);恶寒(aversion to cold,其他类似用语之翻译依此类推);痞(mass);满(fullness);纳呆(anorexia);口苦(bitter taste in the mouth,其他类似用语之翻译依此类推);完谷不化(undigested food in stools);里急后重(tenesmus);五更泄(diarrhea before dawn);按诊(palpation)。

  辨证:八纲(eight principles);表里(exterior and interior);寒热(cold and heat)辨证(syndrome differentiation);八纲辨证(eight-principle syndrome differentiation);表虚证(exterior deficiency syndrome,其他类似用语之翻译依此类推);风火证(wind-fire syndrome,其他类似用语之翻译依此类推)

  治则与治法:治则(therapeutic principle);正治(routine treatment);反治(contrary treatment);治法(therapeutic method);八法(eight therapeutic methods);汗法(diaphoretic therapy或sweating therapy);吐法(emetic therapy或vomiting therapy);下法(purgation therapy);和法(harmonizing therapy);温法(warming therapy);清法(clearing therapy);消法(resolving therapy);补法(tonifying therapy);开窍(resuscitation therapy)。中药方剂:中药(Chinese materia medica或Chinese herbs);方剂(prescription或formula);四气五味(four properties and five tastes);君(king);臣(minister);佐(assistant);使(guide)。

  3   老话新说,意犹未尽

  几年前,有感于中医用语英语翻译百花齐放的状况,我曾在致友人的信中提出了如下一些看法:

  子曰:名不正则言不顺,言不顺则事不成。名为实之谓,实为名之体。言物之名,必据之以实;论物之实,必举之以名。古今亦然。

  名实之谓,约定而成俗。荀子曰:名无固宜,约之以名。约定俗成谓之宜,异于约则谓之不宜。名无固实,约之以命。约定俗成谓之实名。

  由此观之,名实之谓,实出或然之约,而非必然之性。远观名实,似有必然;近究其宜,实为或然。其或然于约定之先而必然于俗成之后。一物之名,约而成俗,其名实之谓,天然一体,众心不疑。

  今观中医术语之英译,当先明乎原语名实之谓,辨其形意之合,别其古今之谕,以理明意,以意正名,方无虎蒙驴皮之忧。

  然中医理奥而言简,意深而语约,译作今文亦不免佶屈聱牙,况译为西文!谪仙谓蜀道之难难于上晴天,英译中医虽无登天之难,亦有蜀道之险。幸有中西译士,力劈荆棘,百年不懈,始有今日中西交通之便。

  中西译士,或因释义悬差,或因谴词偏嗜,或因中西文隔,所译之语,多有百花之彩。有识之士,深以为虑。统一译名,刻不容缓。如何而然?五则之说,似可借鉴。

  一曰简洁:中医用语简洁明快,语约意深,英译之中医术语理当如此。冗长之译文名曰翻译,实乃释义。不独大费笔墨,且衍化横生。

  二曰自然:中西医理迥然不同,治法泾渭两色,然其论病用药亦时有相类。人同此心、心同此理者,互为对应当为可取,且述之自然。若中医之瘰疬,实为西语之scrofula.

  三曰不翻:不翻者,音译也。玄奘译佛经,力主五不翻,即梵语固有而华夏实无此物此观念者,音译之。中医乃华夏古医,其理法方药西语阙如者,亦当音译之。此法实合名从主人之万国通例。阴阳、气、太极者,即属其类。

  四曰回译:回译者,谓直译之形意俱存者。英译之中医用语若可回译,则阅者可见词名义,交流之便自不待言。

  五曰规定:言为心声,心为人灵。人各有心,众志难一。一事之论,不免各执一词,屡论屡争,难有终了。为免争计,久争不结、众论莫是者,当由公推之权威机构加以规定,颁布施行。针灸经穴名称之统一即属此举。

  此所谓“五则”之说,实际上是我当年撰写《中医英语翻译技巧》时,与子木先生等故旧共同厘定之译则,今日重温旧时之论,似乎仍有可供借鉴之处。窃以为中医术语英译及其规范化若能以此而行,或有溪径可循。

  写到这里,忽然想起了钱钟书先生与中西文化比较的一段趣闻。今节录于此,权作本文结语:曾经有一段时间,许多学人以谈论中西文化比较为时尚。对此种清谈学风,钱钟书先生极为厌恶。他说:“有些人连中文、西文都不懂,谈得上什么比较?戈培尔说过,有人和我谈文化,我就拔出手枪来。现在要是有人和我谈中西文化比较,如果我有手枪的话,我也一定要拔出来!”

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  41.  Ways to translate linkage formation and zeugma in English for traditional Chinese medicine. 2005, 3(1)

  42.  Methods of English translation for Huangdi Neijing. 2005, 3(2)

  43.  Ways to translate sentences with no subject in English for traditional Chinese medicine. 2005, 3(2)

  44.  Pondering the standardization of basic terms in traditional Chinese medicine. 2005, 3(2)

  45.  Succession and innovation of Chinese traditional surgery: a perspective on the history. 2005, 3(3)

  46.  Challenges and opportunities for the development of Chinese traditional surgery. 2005, 3(3)

  47.  On truthfulness in light of the English translation of the nomenclature of traditional Chinese medicine. 2005, 3(3)

  48.  Words expressing category in Chinese-English translation of traditional Chinese medicine. 2005, 3(3)

  49.  Disposal of dittograph and repeated structure in Chinese-English translation for traditional Chinese medicine. 2005, 3(4)

  50.  On English translation of the nomenclature of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. 2005, 3(4)

  51.  Historical change of the meaning of words and its influence on the translation of traditional Chinese medicine. 2005, 3(5)

  52.  The conversion and the similarities and differences of Chinese and English punctuation in English translation for traditional Chinese medicine. 2005, 3(5)

  53.  Discussion on English translation of traditional Chinese medicine. 2005, 3(5)

  54.  Experience in clinical practice of doctrines in Huangdi Neijing: Part 1. 2005, 3(6)

  55.  On hypotaxis and parataxis in English translation of traditional Chinese medicine. 2005, 3(6)

  56.  Brief discussion on English translation of the term "five elements" in traditional Chinese medicine. 2005, 3(6)

  57.  Methodological quality assessment of clinical trials in traditional Chinese medicine: the principles of evidence-based medicine. 2006, 4(1)

  58.  Experience in clinical practice of doctrines in Huangdi Neijing: Part 2. 2006, 4(1)

  59.  Application of primary culture technique to traditional Chinese medicine research. 2006, 4(1)

  60.  On methodology in English translation of traditional Chinese medicine. 2006, 4(1)

  61.  Definition criteria for subject of English translation of traditional Chinese medicine. 2006, 4(1)

  62.  Pondering the problems and development of English translation for traditional Chinese medicine. 2006, 4(1)

  63.  Philosophical pondering upon merging traditional Chinese medicine into systemic medicine. 2006, 4(2)

  64.  Changeable and unchangeable factors in translation of traditional Chinese medicine: variability of context and meaning. 2006, 4(2)

  65.  Personal idea on English translation of traditional Chinese medicine: theory and practice. 2006, 3(3)

  66.  Briefly on the limitations of English translation of traditional Chinese medicine. 2006, 4(4)

  67.  Principles and methods of English translation for Huangdi Neijing. 2004, 2(5)

  68.  Comments on some issues concerning the English translation of traditional Chinese medicine. 2006, 4(5)

  69.  Review and reflection on history of English translation of traditional Chinese medicine. 2006, 4(5)

  70.  Disposal of appositive structure in English-Chinese translation for traditional Chinese medicine. 2004, 2(5)

  71.  On some issues concerning the translation and standardization of traditional Chinese medicine terminology. 2006, 4(6)

  72.  A brief analysis of English translation of the book title of Shanghan Zabing Lun. 2006, 4(6)

  73.  Understanding the nature of translation through a comparison between the English version and the original Chinese of Forward to English Translation of Yellow Emperor's Canon of Medicine. 2007, 5(1)

  74.  Thinking on English translation of traditional Chinese Medicine. 2007, 5(2)

  75.  Acqie rement for researchers of English translation of traditional Chinese medicine. 2004, 2(4)

  76.  Influence of translator's knowledge on the quality of English translation of traditional Chinese medicine. 2004, 2(4)

  77.  Chinese culture and English translation of traditional Chinese medicine. 2004, 2(4)

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