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英文法规:中华人民共和国立法法(中英对照版)

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中华人民共和国立法法

Legislation Law of the People’s Republic of China

  第一章 总则

  Chapter One: General Provisions

  第一条为了规范立法活动,健全国家立法制度,建立和完善有中国特色社会主义法律体系,保障和发展社会主义民主,推进依法治国,建设社会主义法治国家,根据宪法,制定本法。

  Article 1 This Law is enacted in accordance with the Constitution in order to standardize lawmaking activities, to perfect state legislative institution, to establish and perfect our socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics, to safeguard and develop socialist democracy, to promote the governance of the country through legal mechanism, and to build a socialist country under the rule of law.

  第二条法律、行政法规、地方性法规、自治条例和单行条例的制定、修改和废止,适用本法。

  Article 2 The enactment, amendment and repeal of any national law, administrative regulation, local decree, autonomous decree and special decree shall be governed by this Law.

  国务院部门规章和地方政府规章的制定、修改和废止,依照本法的有关规定执行。

  The enactment, amendment and repeal of administrative rules promulgated by agencies under the State Council and local rules promulgated by local governments shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Law.

  第三条立法应当遵循宪法的基本原则,以经济建设为中心,坚持社会主义道路、坚持人民民主专政、坚持中国*的领导、坚持马克思列宁主义毛泽东思想邓小平理论,坚持改革开放。

  Article 3 Lawmaking shall adhere to the basic principles of the Constitution, and shall be centered around economic development, and shall adhere to the socialist road, adhere to the democratic dictatorship by the people, adhere to the leadership by the Chinese Communist Party, and adhere to the theory of Marxism, Leninism and Mao Zedong thoughts and Dengxiaoping theory, and adhere to the reform and opening to the outside world.

  第四条立法应当依照法定的权限和程序,从国家整体利益出发,维护社会主义法制的统一和尊严。

  Article 4 Lawmaking shall comply with legally prescribed scope of authority and procedure, and shall serve the national interests and safeguard the uniformity and dignity of our socialist legal system.

  第五条立法应当体现人民的意志,发扬社会主义民主,保障人民通过多种途径参与立法活动。

  Article 5 Lawmaking shall reflect the will of the people, promote socialist democracy, and ensure that people are able to participate in the lawmaking process through various channels.

  第六条立法应当从实际出发,科学合理地规定公民、法人和其他组织的权利与义务、国家机关的权力与责任。

  Article 6 Lawmaking shall be based on actual circumstances, and shall, in a scientific and reasonable manner, prescribe the rights and obligations of citizens, legal persons and other organizations, and the powers and duties of state organs.

  第二章 法律

  Chapter Two: National law

  第一节 立法权限

  Section One Scope of Lawmaking Authority

  第七条全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会行使国家立法权。

  Article 7 The National People’s Congress and Standing Committee thereof shall exercise state legislative power.

  全国人民代表大会制定和修改刑事、民事、国家机构的和其他的基本法律。

  The National People’s Congress enacts and amends criminal, civil, and state organic laws and other basic laws.

  全国人民代表大会常务委员会制定和修改除应当由全国人民代表大会制定的法律以外的其他法律;在全国人民代表大会闭会期间,对全国人民代表大会制定的法律进行部分补充和修改,但是不得同该法律的基本原则相抵触。

  The Standing Committee of National People’s Congress enacts and amends laws other than those to be enacted by the National People’s Congress; while the National People’s Congress is not in session, the Standing Committee thereof partially amends and supplements national law enacted by the National People’s Congress, provided that any amendment or supplement may not contravene the basic principles of such national law.

  第八条 下列事项只能制定法律:

  Article 8 Only national law may be enacted in respect of matters relating to:

  (一)国家主权的事项;

  (i) state sovereignty;

  (二)各级人民代表大会、人民政府、人民法院和人民检察院的产生、组织和职权;

  (ii) the establishment, organization and authority of various people’s congresses, people’s governments, people’s courts and people’s procuratorates;

  (三)民族区域自治制度、特别行政区制度、基层群众自治制度;

  (iii) autonomy system of ethnic regions, system of special administrative region, and system of autonomy at the grass-root level;

  (四)犯罪和刑罚;

  (iv) crimes and criminal sanctions;

  (五)对公民政治权利的剥夺、限制人身自由的强制措施和处罚;

  (v) the deprivation of the political rights of a citizen, or compulsory measures and penalties involving restriction of personal freedom;

  (六)对非国有财产的征收;

  (vi) expropriation of non-state assets;

  (七)民事基本制度;

  (vii) fundamental civil institutions;

  (八)基本经济制度以及财政、税收、海关、金融和外贸的基本制度;

  (viii) fundamental economic system and basic fiscal, tax, customs, financial and foreign trade systems;

  (九)诉讼和仲裁制度;

  (ix) litigation and arbitration system;

  (十)必须由全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会制定法律的其他事项。

  (x) other matters the regulation of which must be carried out through enactment of national law by the National People’s Congress or the Standing Committee thereof.

  第九条本法第八条规定的事项尚未制定法律的,全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会有权作出决定,授权国务院可以根据实际需要,对其中的部分事项先制定行政法规,但是有关犯罪和刑罚、对公民政治权利的剥夺和限制人身自由的强制措施和处罚、司法制度等事项除外。

  Article 9 In the event that no national law has been enacted in respect of a matter enumerated in Article 8 hereof, the National People’s Congress and the Standing Committee thereof have the power to make a decision to enable the State Council to enact administrative regulations in respect of part of the matters concerned for the time being, except where the matter relates to crime and criminal sanctions, the deprivation of a citizen’s political rights, compulsory measure and penalty restricting the personal freedom of a citizen, and the judicial system.

  第十条 授权决定应当明确授权的目的、范围。

  Article 10 An enabling decision shall specify the objective and scope of the authorization.

  被授权机关应当严格按照授权目的和范围行使该项权力。

  The enabled body shall exercise such power in strict compliance with the objectives and scope of authorization.

  被授权机关不得将该项权力转授给其他机关。

  The enabled body may not re-delegate its authority to any other body.

  第十一条授权立法事项,经过实践检验,制定法律的条件成熟时,由全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会及时制定法律。法律制定后,相应立法事项的授权终止。

  Article11 For a matter covered by an enabling decision, if the conditions are ripe for the enactment of a national law, the National People’s Congress or the Standing Committee thereof shall enact a national law in a timely manner. Upon enactment of the national law, the relevant authority for lawmaking in respect of the matter shall be terminated.

  第二节 全国人民代表大会立法程序

  Section Two The Legislative Process of the National People’s Congress

  第十二条全国人民代表大会主席团可以向全国人民代表大会提出法律案,由全国人民代表大会会议审议。

  Article 12 The presidium of the National People’s Congress may introduce a bill to the National People’s Congress for deliberation in its current session.

  全国人民代表大会常务委员会、国务院、中央军事委员会、最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、全国人民代表大会各专门委员会,可以向全国人民代表大会提出法律案,由主席团决定列入会议议程。

  The State Council, the Central Military Committee, the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, and the various special committees of the National People’s Congress may introduce a bill to the National People’s Congress, which shall be put onto the agenda of the current session by a decision of the presidium.

  第十三条一个代表团或者三十名以上的代表联名,可以向全国人民代表大会提出法律案,由主席团决定是否列入会议议程,或者先交有关的专门委员会审议、提出是否列入会议议程的意见,再决定是否列入会议议程。

  Article 13 A delegation, or delegates of at least 30 people acting jointly, may introduce a bill to the National People’s Congress, and the presidium shall decide whether to put such bill onto the agenda of the current session, or whether to refer such bill to the relevant special committee for deliberation, and such special committee shall make a recommendation as to whether such bill shall be put onto the agenda of the current session, whereupon the presidium shall decide whether to do so.

  专门委员会审议的时候可以邀请提案人列席会议,发表意见。

  In the course of deliberation of the bill, the special committee may invite the bill sponsor to the deliberation session to give comments.

  第十四条向全国人民代表大会提出的法律案,在全国人民代表大会闭会期间,可以先向常务委员会提出,经常务委员会会议依照本法第二章第三节规定的有关程序审议后,决定提请全国人民代表大会审议,由常务委员会向大会全体会议作说明,或者由提案人向大会全体会议作说明。

  Article 14 While the National People’s Congress is in recess, a bill to be introduced to it may first be submitted to the Standing Committee thereof, which shall such bill to the National People’s Congress by way of a decision after it has deliberated on it in accordance with the relevant procedures set forth in Section 3 of Chapter 2 hereof, and the Standing Committee or the bill sponsor shall brief the plenary session.

  第十五条常务委员会决定提请全国人民代表大会会议审议的法律案,应当在会议举行的一个月前将法律草案发给代表。

  Article 15 For a bill which the Standing Committee has decided to submit to the upcoming session of the National People’s Congress for deliberation, the draft law shall be distributed to the delegates one month prior to the commencement of the session.

  第十六条列入全国人民代表大会会议议程的法律案,大会全体会议听取提案人的说明后,由各代表团进行审议。

  Article 16 For a bill which has been put on the agenda of the current session of the National People’s Congress, the plenary session shall be briefed by the bill sponsor, whereupon the delegations shall begin deliberation.

  各代表团审议法律案时,提案人应当派人听取意见,回答询问。

  In the course of deliberation of the bill by the delegations, the bill sponsor shall send representatives to hear comments and answer questions.

  各代表团审议法律案时,根据代表团的要求,有关机关、组织应当派人介绍情况。

  In the course of deliberation of the bill by the delegations, upon request by a delegation, the relevant agency or organization shall send representatives to brief the delegation.

  第十七条列入全国人民代表大会会议议程的法律案,由有关的专门委员会进行审议,向主席团提出审议意见,并印发会议。

  Article 17 A bill which has been put on the agenda of the current session of the National People’s Congress shall be deliberated by the relevant special committee, which shall submit its deliberation opinions to the presidium, and such opinions shall be printed and distributed to the delegates attending the session.

  第十八条列入全国人民代表大会会议议程的法律案,由法律委员会根据各代表团和有关的专门委员会的审议意见,对法律案进行统一审议,向主席团提出审议结果报告和法律草案修改稿,对重要的不同意见应当在审议结果报告中予以说明,经主席团会议审议通过后,印发会议。

  Article 18 For a bill which has been put on the agenda of the current session of the National People’s Congress, after gathering the deliberation opinions delivered by the delegations and the relevant special committee, the Legislative Committee shall conduct a uniform deliberation, and afterwards shall deliver to the presidium a deliberation report and the amended draft law, and the deliberation report shall contain explanations of the major differences of opinions, and after the presidium has deliberated and passed the deliberation report and the amended draft law, they shall be printed and circulated to the delegates attending the session.

  第十九条列入全国人民代表大会会议议程的法律案,必要时,主席团常务主席可以召开各代表团团长会议,就法律案中的重大问题听取各代表团的审议意见,进行讨论,并将讨论的情况和意见向主席团报告。

  Article 19 For a bill which has been put on the agenda of the current session of the National People’s Congress, where necessary, the executive chairman of the presidium may call a session of the delegation leaders to hear the deliberation opinions of the various delegations on major matters covered by the bill and conduct discussions, and shall report to the presidium the status of the discussion and the opinions expressed.

  主席团常务主席也可以就法律案中的重大的专门性问题,召集代表团推选的有关代表进行讨论,并将讨论的情况和意见向主席团报告。

  The executive chairman of the presidium may also call a session of the relevant delegates elected by various delegations to discuss major special issues involved in the bill, and shall report to the presidium the status of the discussion and the opinions expressed.

  第二十条列入全国人民代表大会会议议程的法律案,在交付表决前,提案人要求撤回的,应当说明理由,经主席团同意,并向大会报告,对该法律案的审议即行终止。

  Article 20 If before a bill which has been put on the agenda of the current session of the National People’s Congress is brought to a vote, its sponsor requests for its withdrawal, the bill sponsor shall explain the reason for the withdrawal, and subject to consent by the presidium, a report shall be made to the plenary session, whereupon deliberation on the bill shall terminate.

  第二十一条法律案在审议中有重大问题需要进一步研究的,经主席团提出,由大会全体会议决定,可以授权常务委员会根据代表的意见进一步审议,作出决定,并将决定情况向全国人民代表大会下次会议报告;也可以授权常务委员会根据代表的意见进一步审议,提出修改方案,提请全国人民代表大会下次会议审议决定。

  Article 21 Where in the course of deliberating a bill, major issues are encountered, upon motion brought by the presidium and decided upon by the plenary session, the Standing Committee may be authorized to conduction further deliberation based on the opinions of the delegates, and the Standing Committee shall report its decision to the next session of the National People’s Congress; the Standing Committee may also be authorized to conduct further deliberation and prepare an amendment plan, to be submitted to the next session of the National People’s Congress for deliberation and decision.

  第二十二条法律草案修改稿经各代表团审议,由法律委员会根据各代表团的审议意见进行修改,提出法律草案表决稿,由主席团提请大会全体会议表决,由全体代表的过半数通过。

  Article 22 After deliberation by the delegations, the amended draft law shall be further amended by the Legislative Committee based on the deliberating opinions of the delegations, and the Legislative Committee shall present a voting version of the draft law to be submitted by the presidium to the plenary session for voting, and such version shall be adopted if it receives affirmative votes from more than half of all delegates.

  第二十三条全国人民代表大会通过的法律由国家主席签署主席令予以公布。

  Article 23 A national law enacted by the National People’s Congress shall be promulgated by way of a presidential order signed by the state president.

  第三节 全国人民代表大会常务委员会立法程序

  Section Three The Legislative Process of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress

  第二十四条委员长会议可以向常务委员会提出法律案,由常务委员会会议审议。

  Article 24 The Chairman’s Committee may introduce a bill to the Standing Committee for deliberation during its current session.

  国务院、中央军事委员会、最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、全国人民代表大会各专门委员会,可以向常务委员会提出法律案,由委员长会议决定列入常务委员会会议议程,或者先交有关的专门委员会审议、提出报告,再决定列入常务委员会会议议程。如果委员长会议认为法律案有重大问题需要进一步研究,可以建议提案人修改完善后再向常务委员会提出。

  The State Council, the Central Military Committee, the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, the various special committees of the Standing Committee may introduce a bill to the Standing Committee, and the Chairman’s Committee shall make a decision to put the bill on the agenda of the upcoming session of the Standing Committee, or first refer it to the relevant special committee for deliberation, and a report on it shall be submitted by the special committee, whereupon the Chairman’s Committee will decide to put it on the agenda of the upcoming session of the Standing Committee. If the Chairman’s Committee is of the opinion that there are material issues outstanding in respect of the bill which require further study, it may advise that the bill sponsor revise and improve the bill before it is introduced to the Standing Committee.

  第二十五条常务委员会组成人员十人以上联名,可以向常务委员会提出法律案,由委员长会议决定是否列入常务委员会会议议程,或者先交有关的专门委员会审议、提出是否列入会议议程的意见,再决定是否列入常务委员会会议议程。不列入常务委员会会议议程的,应当向常务委员会会议报告或者向提案人说明。

  Article 25 Ten or more members of the Standing Committee acting jointly, may introduce a bill to the Standing Committee, and the Chairman’s Committee shall decide whether to put it on the agenda of the Standing Committee’s session, or whether to refer it to the relevant special committee for deliberation and recommendation before deciding to put it on the agenda. Where such bill is not put on the agenda of the Standing Committee session, the Chairman’s Committee shall make a report to the Standing Committee session or give an explanation to the bill sponsor.

  专门委员会审议的时候可以邀请提案人列席会议,发表意见。

  In the course of deliberation, the special committee may invite the bill sponsor to the session to give comments.

  第二十六条列入常务委员会会议议程的法律案,除特殊情况外,应当在会议举行的七日前将法律草案发给常务委员会组成人员。

  Article 26 For a bill which has been put on the agenda of the session of the Standing Committee, unless special circumstances arise, the draft law shall be distributed to the members of the Standing Committee seven days prior to commencement of the session.

  第二十七条列入常务委员会会议议程的法律案,一般应当经三次常务委员会会议审议后再交付表决。

  Article 27 A bill which has been put on the agenda of the Standing Committee session shall in general be deliberated three times in the current session of the Standing Committee before being voted on.

  常务委员会会议第一次审议法律案,在全体会议上听取提案人的说明,由分组会议进行初步审议。

  During the first deliberation of the bill at the current Standing Committee session, the bill sponsor shall brief the plenary session, whereupon preliminary deliberation shall be conducted by divided group sessions.

  常务委员会会议第二次审议法律案,在全体会议上听取法律委员会关于法律草案修改情况和主要问题的汇报,由分组会议进一步审议。

  During the second deliberation of the bill at the current Standing Committee session, the Legislative Committee shall brief the plenary session on the status of amendment and major issues in respect of the draft law, whereupon further deliberation shall be conducted by divided group sessions.

  常务委员会会议第三次审议法律案,在全体会议上听取法律委员会关于法律草案审议结果的报告,由分组会议对法律草案修改稿进行审议。

  During the third deliberation of the bill at the current Standing Committee session, the Legislative Committee shall give a report to the plenary session on the result of the deliberation on the draft law, whereupon deliberation on the amended draft law shall be conducted by divided group sessions.

  常务委员会审议法律案时,根据需要,可以召开联组会议或者全体会议,对法律草案中的主要问题进行讨论。

  In the course of deliberation, if necessary, the Standing Committee may convene a joint group session or a plenary session to discuss the major issues of the draft law.

  第二十八条列入常务委员会会议议程的法律案,各方面意见比较一致的,可以经两次常务委员会会议审议后交付表决;部分修改的法律案,各方面的意见比较一致的,也可以经一次常务委员会会议审议即交付表决。

  Article 28 For a bill which has been put on the agenda of the session of the Standing Committee, if a preponderant consensus is formed, it may be brought to a vote after two deliberations by the session of the Standing Committee; for a bill which partially amends a national law, if a preponderant consensus is formed, it may be brought to a vote after one deliberation by the session of the Standing Committee.

  第二十九条常务委员会分组会议审议法律案时,提案人应当派人听取意见,回答询问。

  Article 29 In the course of deliberation by the subgroups of the Standing Committee, the bill sponsor shall send representatives to the deliberating sessions to hear comments and answer questions.

  常务委员会分组会议审议法律案时,根据小组的要求,有关机关、组织应当派人介绍情况。

  In the course of deliberation by the subgroups of the Standing Committee, if requested by a subgroup, the relevant agency or organization shall send representatives to brief the subgroup.

  第三十条列入常务委员会会议议程的法律案,由有关的专门委员会进行审议,提出审议意见,印发常务委员会会议。

  Article 30 A bill which has been put on the agenda of the Standing Committee session shall be deliberated by the relevant special committee, which shall present its deliberation opinions, which shall be printed and distributed to members attending the Standing Committee session.

  有关的专门委员会审议法律案时,可以邀请其他专门委员会的成员列席会议,发表意见。

  In the course of deliberation, the relevant special committee may invite members of other special committees to the session to give comments.

  第三十一条列入常务委员会会议议程的法律案,由法律委员会根据常务委员会组成人员、有关的专门委员会的审议意见和各方面提出的意见,对法律案进行统一审议,提出修改情况的汇报或者审议结果报告和法律草案修改稿,对重要的不同意见应当在汇报或者审议结果报告中予以说明。对有关的专门委员会的重要审议意见没有采纳的,应当向有关的专门委员会反馈。

  Article 31 For a bill which has been put on the agenda of the session of the Standing Committee, the Legislative Committee shall conduct uniform deliberation based on the opinions expressed by the members of the Standing Committee, the deliberation opinions delivered by the relevant special committee and concerned constituents, and thereafter it shall give a report on the status of amendment or deliver a deliberation result report and the amended draft law, and the status report or deliberation result report shall contain notes on the major difference of opinions. Where a major deliberation opinion by a relevant special committee has not bee adopted, the Legislative Committee shall give an explanation in its status report or deliberation result report. If a major deliberation opinion expressed by a relevant special committee is not adopted, the Legislative Committee shall also report back to the special committee.

  法律委员会审议法律案时,可以邀请有关的专门委员会的成员列席会议,发表意见。 外语教¥育网www.for68.com

  In the course of deliberation, the Legislative Committee may invite members of the relevant special committee to the session to give comments.

  第三十二条专门委员会审议法律案时,应当召开全体会议审议,根据需要,可以要求有关机关、组织派有关负责人说明情况。

  Article 32 In the course of deliberation, a special committee shall convene a plenary session to conduct the deliberation, and where necessary, it may request that the relevant agency or organization send its relevant person in charge to brief the session.

  第三十三条专门委员会之间对法律草案的重要问题意见不一致时,应当向委员长会议报告。

  Article 33 Where there is a difference of opinion among the special committees on a major matter covered by the draft law, they shall report such difference to the Chairman’s Committee.

  第三十四条列入常务委员会会议议程的法律案,法律委员会、有关的专门委员会和常务委员会工作机构应当听取各方面的意见。听取意见可以采取座谈会、论证会、听证会等多种形式。

  Article 34 For a bill which has been put on the agenda of the session of the Standing Committee, the relevant special committee and the office of operation of the Standing Committee shall hear the opinions of the concerned constituents. In gathering opinions, various methods may be adopted, such as panel discussion, feasibility study meeting, hearing, etc.

  常务委员会工作机构应当将法律草案发送有关机关、组织和专家征求意见,将意见整理后送法律委员会和有关的专门委员会,并根据需要,印发常务委员会会议。

  The Standing Committee’s office of operation shall distribute the draft law to the relevant agency, organization and experts for comments, and shall compile such comments and present them to the Legislative Committee and the relevant special committee, and where necessary, it shall distribute them to the current session of the Standing Committee.

  第三十五条列入常务委员会会议议程的重要的法律案,经委员长会议决定,可以将法律草案公布,征求意见。各机关、组织和公民提出的意见送常务委员会工作机构。

  Article 35 For a major bill which has been put on the agenda of the session of the Standing Committee, upon decision by the Chairman’s Committee, the draft law may be presented to the public for comments. The comments presented by the various agencies, organizations and citizens shall be submitted to the office of operation of the Standing Committee.

  第三十六条列入常务委员会会议议程的法律案,常务委员会工作机构应当收集整理分组审议的意见和各方面提出的意见以及其他有关资料,分送法律委员会和有关的专门委员会,并根据需要,印发常务委员会会议。

  Article 36 For a bill which has been put on the agenda of the session of the Standing Committee, the office of operation of the Standing Committee shall collect and compile the comments made by the subgroups during deliberation, as well as comments made by concerned constituents, and where necessary, it shall distribute them to the current session of the Standing Committee.

  第三十七条列入常务委员会会议议程的法律案,在交付表决前,提案人要求撤回的,应当说明理由,经委员长会议同意,并向常务委员会报告,对该法律案的审议即行终止。

  Article 37 If the sponsor of a bill which has been put on the agenda of the session of the Standing Committee requests for withdrawal of such bill before it is brought to a vote, the bill sponsor shall give an explanation, and subject to consent by the Chairman’s Committee, a report shall be made to the Standing Committee, whereupon the deliberation on the bill shall terminate.

  第三十八条法律案经常务委员会三次会议审议后,仍有重大问题需要进一步研究的,由委员长会议提出,经联组会议或者全体会议同意,可以暂不付表决,交法律委员会和有关的专门委员会进一步审议。

  Article 38 If, after three deliberations by the Standing Committee session, a bill still has major issues which require further study, upon a motion brought by the Chairman’s Committee, and upon approval by the joint group session or the plenary session, voting on the bill may be postponed, whereupon the bill shall be submitted to the Legislative Committee and the relevant special committee for further deliberation.

  第三十九条列入常务委员会会议审议的法律案,因各方面对制定该法律的必要性、可行性等重大问题存在较大意见分歧搁置审议满两年的,或者因暂不付表决经过两年没有再次列入常务委员会会议议程审议的,由委员长会议向常务委员会报告,该法律案终止审议。

  Article 39 For a bill which has been put on the agenda of the session of the Standing Committee, if deliberation on the bill has been postponed for two years due to major differences among the concerned constituents on major issues such as the necessity or feasibility of enacting such bill, or voting was postponed and the bill has not been put on the agenda of the session of the Standing Committee for two years, the Chairman’s Committee shall make a report to the Standing Committee, whereupon deliberation on the bill shall terminate.

  第四十条法律草案修改稿经常务委员会会议审议,由法律委员会根据常务委员会组成人员的审议意见进行修改,提出法律草案表决稿,由委员长会议提请常务委员会全体会议表决,由常务委员会全体组成人员的过半数通过。

  Article 40 Upon deliberation of the draft law by the Standing Committee session, the Legislative Committee shall make further amendment based on the comments made during deliberation by members of the Standing Committee, and shall present a voting version of the draft law, and the Chairman’s Committee shall bring the draft law for a vote by the plenary session of the Standing Committee, whereupon such bill shall be enacted if more than half of the votes cast by the members of the Standing Committee are affirmative.

  第四十一条常务委员会通过的法律由国家主席签署主席令予以公布。

  Article 41 A national law passed by the National People’s Congress shall be promulgated by way of a presidential order signed by the state president.

  第四节 法律解释

  Section Four Interpretations of National law

  第四十二条法律解释权属于全国人民代表大会常务委员会。

  Article 42 The power to interpret a national law shall vest in the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress.

  法律有以下情况之一的,由全国人民代表大会常务委员会解释:

  The Standing Committee of National People’s Congress shall give interpretation to a national law in any of the following circumstances:

  (一)法律的规定需要进一步明确具体含义的;

  (i) the specific meaning of a provision of such legislation requires further clarification;

  (二)法律制定后出现新的情况,需要明确适用法律依据的。

  (ii) a new situation arises after enactment of such legislation, thereby requiring clarification of the basis of its application.

  第四十三条国务院、中央军事委员会、最高人民法院、最高人民检察院和全国人民代表大会各专门委员会以及省、自治区、直辖市的人民代表大会常务委员会可以向全国人民代表大会常务委员会提出法律解释要求。

  Article 43 The State Council, the Central Military Committee, the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, the various special committees of the Standing Committee and the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of various provinces, autonomous regions and municipality directly under the central government may make a request for legislative interpretation to the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress.

  第四十四条常务委员会工作机构研究拟订法律解释草案,由委员长会议决定列入常务委员会会议议程。

  Article 44 The office of operation of the Standing Committee shall research and prepare draft legislative interpretation, and shall be put on the agenda of the upcoming session of the Standing Committee upon decision by the Chairman’s Committee.

  第四十五条法律解释草案经常务委员会会议审议,由法律委员会根据常务委员会组成人员的审议意见进行审议、修改,提出法律解释草案表决稿。

  Article 45 After deliberation by the session of the Standing Committee, the draft legislative interpretation shall be deliberated and amended by the Legislative Committee based on comments made by members of the Standing Committee, and it shall submit a voting version of the draft legislative interpretation.

  第四十六条法律解释草案表决稿由常务委员会全体组成人员的过半数通过,由常务委员会发布公告予以公布。

  Article 46 The voting version of the draft legislative interpretation shall be adopted if affirmed by more than half of all members of the Standing Committee, and shall be promulgated by the Standing Committee by way of a public announcement.

  第四十七条全国人民代表大会常务委员会的法律解释同法律具有同等效力。

  Article 47 Legislative interpretations issued by the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress shall have the same force as national law.

  第五节 其他规定

  Section Five Other Provisions

  第四十八条提出法律案,应当同时提出法律草案文本及其说明,并提供必要的资料。法律草案的说明应当包括制定该法律的必要性和主要内容。

  Article 48 In introducing a bill, the bill sponsor shall at the same time submit the draft law and the accompanying commentaries, and shall also provide the necessary materials. Commentaries to the draft law shall also explain the necessity for its enactment and its main content.

  第四十九条向全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会提出的法律案,在列入会议议程前,提案人有权撤回。

  Article 49 For a bill introduced to the National People’s Congress and its Standing Committee, the bill sponsor is entitled to withdraw the bill before it is put on the agenda.

  第五十条交付全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会全体会议表决未获得通过的法律案,如果提案人认为必须制定该法律,可以按照法律规定的程序重新提出,由主席团、委员长会议决定是否列入会议议程;其中,未获得全国人民代表大会通过的法律案,应当提请全国人民代表大会审议决定。

  Article 50 Where a bill introduced to the National People’s Congress and its Standing Committee has been voted on by the plenary session and fails to pass, if the bill sponsor deems it necessary to enact such legislation, he may re-introduce it in accordance with legally prescribed procedures, and the presidium or the Chairman’s Committee shall decide whether it shall be put on the agenda; specifically, if a bill fails to be adopted by the National People’s Congress, it shall be re-introduced to the National People’s Congress for deliberation and decision.

  第五十一条 法律应当明确规定施行日期。

  Article 51 A law shall specify a date for its implementation.

  第五十二条签署公布法律的主席令载明该法律的制定机关、通过和施行日期。

  Article 52 The presidential order for promulgation of the law shall set forth the enactment organ, the date of adoption and the date of implementation.

  法律签署公布后,及时在全国人民代表大会常务委员会公报和在全国范围内发行的报纸上刊登。

  Upon signing and promulgation, the law shall be published on the Bulletin of the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress and nationally circulated newspapers in a timely manner.

  在常务委员会公报上刊登的法律文本为标准文本。

  The version of the law printed on the Bulletin of the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress shall be the standard version.

  第五十三条 法律的修改和废止程序,适用本章的有关规定。

  Article 53 The procedure for amendment and repeal of national law shall be governed by the provisions of this Chapter.

  法律部分条文被修改或者废止的,必须公布新的法律文本。

  Where a law is partially amended or repealed, a new version shall be published.

  第五十四条法律根据内容需要,可以分编、章、节、条、款、项、目。

  Article 54 Where necessary as required by its content, a law may adopt a structure consisting of Parts, Chapters, Sections, Articles, Paragraphs, Items, and Sub-items.

  编、章、节、条的序号用中文数字依次表述,款不编序号,项的序号用中文数字加括号依次表述,目的序号用阿拉伯数字依次表述。

  The number for a Part, Chapter, Section, or Article shall be in Chinese character in numerical order, and Paragraphs shall not be numbered, the number for an item shall be a Chinese number in parenthesis in numerical order, and the number for a sub-item shall be an Arabic number in numerical order.

  法律标题的题注应当载明制定机关、通过日期。

  The subtitle of a law shall set forth the enacting organ and the date of promulgation.

  第五十五条全国人民代表大会常务委员会工作机构可以对有关具体问题的法律询问进行研究予以答复,并报常务委员会备案。

  Article 55 The office of operation of the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress may study questions raised regarding specific aspects of a law and give a response, which shall also be submitted to the Standing Committee for filing.

  第三章 行政法规

  Chapter Three: Administrative Regulations

  第五十六条国务院根据宪法和法律,制定行政法规。行政法规可以就下列事项作出规定:

  Article 56 The State Council enacts administrative regulations in accordance with the Constitution and national law. Administrative regulations may provide for the following:

  (一)为执行法律的规定需要制定行政法规的事项;

  (i) matters for which enactment of administrative regulations is required in order to implement a national law;

  (二)宪法第八十九条规定的国务院行政管理职权的事项。

  (ii) matters subject to the administrative regulation of the State Council under Article 89 of the Constitution.

  应当由全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会制定法律的事项,国务院根据全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会的授权决定先制定的行政法规,经过实践检验,制定法律的条件成熟时,国务院应当及时提请全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会制定法律。

  If a matter which ought to be regulated by national law enacted by the National People’s Congress and its Standing Committee, and pursuant to a enabling decision issued by the National People’s Congress and its Standing Committee, the State Council has enacted an administrative regulation for the time being, and after trial by practice, the conditions for enactment of the relevant national law has matured, the State Council shall timely submit a request to the National People’s Congress and its Standing Committee for enactment of the relevant national law.

  第五十七条行政法规由国务院组织起草。国务院有关部门认为需要制定行政法规的,应当向国务院报请立项。

  Article 57 An administrative regulation shall be drafted by the State Council, where the relevant agency of the State Council deems it necessary to enact an administrative regulation, it shall apply to the State Council for preliminary approval.

  第五十八条行政法规在起草过程中,应当广泛听取有关机关、组织和公民的意见。听取意见可以采取座谈会、论证会、听证会等多种形式。

  Article 58 In the process of drafting an administrative regulation, the drafting body shall gather opinions from a wide circle of constituents such as the relevant agencies, organizations and citizens. The gathering of opinions may be in various forms such as panel discussion, feasibility study meeting, hearing etc.

  第五十九条行政法规起草工作完成后,起草单位应当将草案及其说明、各方面对草案主要问题的不同意见和其他有关资料送国务院法制机构进行审查。

  Article 59 Upon completion of a draft administrative regulation, the drafting body shall submit the following to the State Council’s legislative affairs office for review: the draft administrative regulation, commentaries, the major difference of opinions on major issues covered by the draft expressed by the various constituencies, and other relevant materials.

  国务院法制机构应当向国务院提出审查报告和草案修改稿,审查报告应当对草案主要问题作出说明。

  The legislative affairs office of the State Council shall submit to the State Council a review report and the amended version of the draft, and the review report shall explain the major matters covered by the draft.

  第六十条行政法规的决定程序依照中华人民共和国国务院组织法的有关规定办理。

  Article 60 The enactment procedure for an administrative regulation shall comply with the relevant provisions of the State Council Organic Law of the People’s Republic of China.

  第六十一条 行政法规由总理签署国务院令公布。

  Article 61 An administrative regulation shall be promulgated by way of a State Council order signed by the premier.

  第六十二条行政法规签署公布后,及时在国务院公报和在全国范围内发行的报纸上刊登。

  Article 62 Upon signing and promulgation, an administrative regulation shall be published in the State Council Bulletin and nationally circulated newspapers in a timely manner.

  在国务院公报上刊登的行政法规文本为标准文本。

  The version appearing on the State Council Bulletin shall be the standard version.

  第四章 地方性法规、自治条例和 单行条例、规章

  Chapter Four: Local Decrees, Autonomous Decrees and Special Decrees, and Rules

  第一节地方性法规、自治条例和单行条例

  Section One Local Decrees, Autonomous Decrees and Special Decrees

  第六十三条省、自治区、直辖市的人民代表大会及其常务委员会根据本行政区域的具体情况和实际需要,在不同宪法、法律、行政法规相抵触的前提下,可以制定地方性法规。

  Article 63 In light of the specific situations and actual needs of the jurisdiction, the People’s Congress of a province, autonomous region, municipality directly under the central government and the Standing Committee thereof may enact local decrees provided that they shall not contravene any provision of the Constitution, national law and administrative regulations.

  较大的市的人民代表大会及其常务委员会根据本市的具体情况和实际需要,在不同宪法、法律、行政法规和本省、自治区的地方性法规相抵触的前提下,可以制定地方性法规,报省、自治区的人民代表大会常务委员会批准后施行。省、自治区的人民代表大会常务委员会对报请批准的地方性法规,应当对其合法性进行审查,同宪法、法律、行政法规和本省、自治区的地方性法规不抵触的,应当在四个月内予以批准。

  In light of the specific situations and actual needs of the jurisdiction, the People’s Congress and its Standing Committee in a major city may enact local decrees provided that they shall not contravene any provision of the Constitution, national law, administrative regulations and the local decrees in force in the province or autonomous region in which the city is located, and such local degrees shall be implemented after they are reviewed and approved by the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of the province or autonomous region. The Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of the province or autonomous region shall review the legality of a decrees submitted to it for approval, and shall grant approval within four months if such decree does not contravene any provision of the Constitution, national law, administrative regulations, and the local decrees in force in the province or autonomous region in which the city is located.

  省、自治区的人民代表大会常务委员会在对报请批准的较大的市的地方性法规进行审查时,发现其同本省、自治区的人民政府的规章相抵触的,应当作出处理决定。

  In the course of reviewing a local decree submitted to it by a major city, if the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of the province or autonomous region finds that it contravenes a local rule issued by the People’s Government of the province or autonomous region, it shall decide on how to handle such situation.

  本法所称较大的市是指省、自治区的人民政府所在地的市,经济特区所在地的市和经国务院批准的较大的市。

  For purposes of this Law, a major city refers to a city where the People’s Government of the province or autonomous region is seated, the city where a special economic zone is located, and any other major city approved by the State Council.

  第六十四条 地方性法规可以就下列事项作出规定:

  Article 64 A local decree may provide for the following:

  (一)为执行法律、行政法规的规定,需要根据本行政区域的实际情况作具体规定的事项;

  (i) matters for which enactment of a local decree is required in order to implement a national law or administrative regulation in light of the actual situation of the jurisdiction;

  (二)属于地方性事务需要制定地方性法规的事项。

  (ii) matters which are local in nature and require the enactment of a local decree.

  除本法第八条规定的事项外,其他事项国家尚未制定法律或者行政法规的,省、自治区、直辖市和较大的市根据本地方的具体情况和实际需要,可以先制定地方性法规。在国家制定的法律或者行政法规生效后,地方性法规同法律或者行政法规相抵触的规定无效,制定机关应当及时予以修改或者废止。

  Except for matters enumerated in Article 8 hereof, in respect of any other matter for which the state has not enacted national law or administrative regulation, the People’s Congress of a province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the central government and the Standing Committee thereof may enact local decrees for the time being in light of its specific situations and actual needs. Where a national law or administrative regulation enacted by the state has come into force, any provision in the local decree which contravenes it shall be invalid, and the enacting body shall amend or repeal such provision on a timely basis.

  第六十五条经济特区所在地的省、市的人民代表大会及其常务委员会根据全国人民代表大会的授权决定,制定法规,在经济特区范围内实施。

  Article 65 The People’s Congress of a province or city where a special economic zone is located and the its Standing Committee shall, pursuant to an enabling decision issued by the National People’s Congress, enact decrees for implementation within the special economic zone.

  第六十六条民族自治地方的人民代表大会有权依照当地民族的政治、经济和文化的特点,制定自治条例和单行条例。自治区的自治条例和单行条例,报全国人民代表大会常务委员会批准后生效。自治州、自治县的自治条例和单行条例,报省、自治区、直辖市的人民代表大会常务委员会批准后生效。

  Article 66 The People’s Congress of an autonomous ethnic area has the power to enact autonomous decree and special decree in light of its ethnic political, economic and cultural characteristics. An autonomous decree or special decree enacted by an autonomous region shall come into force after it is reviewed and approved by the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress. An autonomous decree or special decree enacted by an autonomous prefecture or autonomous county shall come into force after it is reviewed and approved by the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of the province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the central government.

  自治条例和单行条例可以依照当地民族的特点,对法律和行政法规的规定作出变通规定,但不得违背法律或者行政法规的基本原则,不得对宪法和民族区域自治法的规定以及其他有关法律、行政法规专门就民族自治地方所作的规定作出变通规定。

  An autonomous decree or special decree may vary the provisions of a law or administrative regulation, provided that any such variance may not violate the basic principles thereof, and no variance is allowed in respect of any provision of the Constitution or the Law on Ethnic Area Autonomy and provisions of any other law or administrative regulations which are dedicated to matters concerning ethnic autonomous areas.

  第六十七条规定本行政区域特别重大事项的地方性法规,应当由人民代表大会通过。

  Article 67 Any local decree dealing with special major matters of the jurisdiction shall be passed by the People’s Congress of the jurisdiction.

  第六十八条地方性法规案、自治条例和单行条例案的提出、审议和表决程序,根据中华人民共和国地方各级人民代表大会和地方各级人民政府组织法,参照本法第二章第二节、第三节、第五节的规定,由本级人民代表大会规定。

  Article 68 The procedure for introducing, deliberating and voting on a local decree bill, autonomous decree bill and special decree bill shall be formulated by the local People’s Congress in accordance with the Local People’s Congress and People’s Government Organic Law of the People’s Republic of China, as well as by reference to the provisions of Sections Two, Three and Five of Chapter Two hereof.

  地方性法规草案由负责统一审议的机构提出审议结果的报告和草案修改稿。

  The agency in charge of uniformly deliberating the draft of a local decree shall present a deliberation result report and the amended draft.

  第六十九条省、自治区、直辖市的人民代表大会制定的地方性法规由大会主席团发布公告予以公布。

  Article 69 A local decree enacted by the People’s Congress of a province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the central government shall be promulgated by the presidium of the current session by way of a public announcement.

  省、自治区、直辖市的人民代表大会常务委员会制定的地方性法规由常务委员会发布公告予以公布。

  A local decree enacted by the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of a province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the central government shall be promulgated by the Standing Committee by way of a public announcement.

  较大的市的人民代表大会及其常务委员会制定的地方性法规报经批准后,由较大的市的人民代表大会常务委员会发布公告予以公布。

  Upon approval, a local decree enacted by the People’s Congress of a major city and the Standing Committee thereof shall be promulgated by the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of such major city by way of a public announcement.

  自治条例和单行条例报经批准后,分别由自治区、自治州、自治县的人民代表大会常务委员会发布公告予以公布。

  Upon approval, an autonomous decree or special decree shall be promulgated by the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of such autonomous region, autonomous prefecture or autonomous county respectively by way of a public announcement.

  第七十条地方性法规、自治区的自治条例和单行条例公布后,及时在本级人民代表大会常务委员会公报和在本行政区域范围内发行的报纸上刊登。

  Article 70 Upon promulgation, a local decree, or an autonomous decree or special decree shall be published in the Bulletin of the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of the region and the newspapers circulated within such jurisdiction in a timely manner.

  在常务委员会公报上刊登的地方性法规、自治条例和单行条例文本为标准文本。

  The version of the local decree, or autonomous decree or special decree appearing on the Standing Committee Bulletin shall be the standard version.

  第二节 规章

  Section Two Administrative and Local Rules

  第七十一条国务院各部、委员会、中国人民银行、审计署和具有行政管理职能的直属机构,可以根据法律和国务院的行政法规、决定、命令,在本部门的权限范围内,制定规章。

  Article 71 The various ministries, commissions, the People’s Bank of China, the Auditing Agency, and a body directly under the State Council exercising regulatory function, may enact administrative rules within the scope of its authority in accordance with national law, administrative regulations, as well as decisions and orders of the State Council.

  部门规章规定的事项应当属于执行法律或者国务院的行政法规、决定、命令的事项。

  A matter on which an administrative rule is enacted shall be a matter which is within the scope of implementing national law, administrative regulations, and decisions or orders issued by the State Council.

  第七十二条涉及两个以上国务院部门职权范围的事项,应当提请国务院制定行政法规或者由国务院有关部门联合制定规章。

  Article 72 If a matter falls within the scope of authority of two or more agencies under the State Council, the relevant agencies shall request the State Council to enact an administrative regulation or the relevant agencies under the State Council shall jointly enact an administrative rule.

  第七十三条省、自治区、直辖市和较大的市的人民政府,可以根据法律、行政法规和本省、自治区、直辖市的地方性法规,制定规章。

  Article 73 The People’s Government of a province, autonomous region, municipality directly under the central government or a major city may enact local rules in accordance with national law, administrative regulations and local decrees of the province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the central government.

  地方政府规章可以就下列事项作出规定:

  A local rule may provide for the following:

  (一)为执行法律、行政法规、地方性法规的规定需要制定规章的事项;

  (i) matters for which enactment of local rules is required in order to implement a national law, administrative regulation or local decree;

  (二)属于本行政区域的具体行政管理事项。

  (ii) matters which are within the regulatory scope of the local jurisdiction.

  第七十四条国务院部门规章和地方政府规章的制定程序,参照本法第三章的规定,由国务院规定。

  Article 74 The procedures for enacting State Council administrative rules and local government rules shall be formulated by the State Council by reference to Chapter Three hereof.

  第七十五条 部门规章应当经部务会议或者委员会会议决定。

  Article 75 An administrative rule shall be decided upon by ministerial affairs meeting or commission affairs meeting.

  地方政府规章应当经政府常务会议或者全体会议决定。

  A local rule shall be decided upon by government regular affairs meeting or plenary meeting.

  第七十六条 部门规章由部门首长签署命令予以公布。

  Article 76 Administrative rules shall be promulgated by way of an order signed by the person in charge of the agency. Local rules shall be promulgated by way of an order signed by the provincial governor, the chairman of the autonomous region, or the mayor of the city.

  地方政府规章由省长或者自治区主席或者市长签署命令予以公布。

  Article 77 Upon signing and promulgation, administrative rules shall be published on the State Council Bulletin or agency bulletin and nationally circulated newspapers in a timely manner.

  第七十七条部门规章签署公布后,及时在国务院公报或者部门公报和在全国范围内发行的报纸上刊登。

  Upon signing and promulgation, local rules shall be published on the bulletin of the local People’s Government and newspapers circulated in the local jurisdiction in a timely manner.

  地方政府规章签署公布后,及时在本级人民政府公报和在本行政区域范围内发行的报纸上刊登。

  The version of the administrative or local rules appearing on the State Council Bulletin or agency bulletin and the bulletin of the local People’s Government shall be the standard version.

  在国务院公报或者部门公报和地方人民政府公报上刊登的规章文本为标准文本。

  Chapter Five: Scope of Application and Filing

  第五章 适用与备案 第七十八条宪法具有最高的法律效力,一切法律、行政法规、地方性法规、自治条例和单行条例、规章都不得同宪法相抵触。

  Article 78 The Constitution has the highest legal authority, and no national law, administrative regulation, local decree, autonomous decree and special decree, or administrative or local rule may contravene the Constitution.

  第七十九条 法律的效力高于行政法规、地方性法规、规章。

  Article 79 National law has higher legal authority than administrative regulations, local decrees and administrative or local rules.

  行政法规的效力高于地方性法规、规章。

  Administrative regulations has higher legal authority than local decrees and administrative or local rules.

  第八十条 地方性法规的效力高于本级和下级地方政府规章。

  Article 80 A local decree has higher legal authority than local rules issued by governments at the same level and lower level.

  省、自治区的人民政府制定的规章的效力高于本行政区域内的较大的市的人民政府制定的规章。

  Local rules enacted by the People’s Government of a province or autonomous region have higher legal authority than local rules enacted by the People’s Government of a major city located in its jurisdiction.

  第八十一条自治条例和单行条例依法对法律、行政法规、地方性法规作变通规定的,在本自治地方适用自治条例和单行条例的规定。

  Article 81 Where an autonomous decree or special decree varies the provision of national law, administrative regulations or local decrees, the provisions of the autonomous decree or special decree shall prevail in the said autonomous area.

  经济特区法规根据授权对法律、行政法规、地方性法规作变通规定的,在本经济特区适用经济特区法规的规定。

  Where a decree of a special economic zone varies the provision of national law, administrative regulations or local decrees pursuant to an enabling decision, the provisions of the decree of the special economic zone shall prevail in the said special economic zone.

  第八十二条部门规章之间、部门规章与地方政府规章之间具有同等效力,在各自的权限范围内施行。

  Article 82 Administrative rules and local rules have the same legal authority have the same legal authority and are implemented within their respective scope of authority.

  第八十三条同一机关制定的法律、行政法规、地方性法规、自治条例和单行条例、规章,特别规定与一般规定不一致的,适用特别规定;新的规定与旧的规定不一致的,适用新的规定。

  Article 83 In the case of national law, administrative regulations, local decrees, autonomous decrees and special decrees, and administrative or local rules enacted by the same body, if a special provision differs from a general provision, the special provision shall prevail; if a new provision differs from an old provision, the new provision shall prevail.

  第八十四条法律、行政法规、地方性法规、自治条例和单行条例、规章不溯及既往,但为了更好地保护公民、法人和其他组织的权利和利益而作的特别规定除外。

  Article 84 National law, administrative regulations, local decrees, autonomous decrees and special decrees, and administrative or local rules do not have retroactive force, except where a special provision is made in order to better protect the rights and interests of citizens, legal persons and other organizations.

  第八十五条法律之间对同一事项的新的一般规定与旧的特别规定不一致,不能确定如何适用时,由全国人民代表大会常务委员会裁决。

  Article 85 If there is a difference between a new general provision and an old special provision in respect of the same matter among two national laws, and the applicable provision can not be decided, a ruling shall be made by the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress.

  行政法规之间对同一事项的新的一般规定与旧的特别规定不一致,不能确定如何适用时,由国务院裁决。

  If there is a difference between a new general provision and an old special provision in respect of the same matter among two administrative regulations, and the applicable provision can not be decided, a ruling shall be made by the State Council.

  第八十六条地方性法规、规章之间不一致时,由有关机关依照下列规定的权限作出裁决:

  Article 86 If there is a difference between local decrees and rules in respect of the same matter, a ruling shall be made by the relevant agency in accordance with the following provisions:

  (一)同一机关制定的新的一般规定与旧的特别规定不一致时,由制定机关裁决;

  (i) In the case of difference between the new general provision and an old special provision enacted by the same agency, the enacting agency shall make the ruling;

  (二)地方性法规与部门规章之间对同一事项的规定不一致,不能确定如何适用时,由国务院提出意见,国务院认为应当适用地方性法规的,应当决定在该地方适用地方性法规的规定;认为应当适用部门规章的,应当提请全国人民代表大会常务委员会裁决;

  (ii) In the case of difference between local decree and administrative rule in respect of the same matter, and applicable provision can not be decided, the State Council shall give its opinion, and where the State Council deems that the local decree should apply, then the local decree shall be applied in the local jurisdiction; where the State Council deems that the administrative rule should apply, it shall request the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress to make a ruling;

  (三)部门规章之间、部门规章与地方政府规章之间对同一事项的规定不一致时,由国务院裁决。

  (ii) In the case of difference between administrative rules, or between local rules and administrative rules in respect of the same matter, and the applicable provision can not be decided, the State Council shall make a ruling;

  根据授权制定的法规与法律规定不一致,不能确定如何适用时,由全国人民代表大会常务委员会裁决。

  where there is a difference between administrative regulations enacted pursuant to an enabling and a national law and the applicable provision cannot be decided, the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress shall make a ruling.

  第八十七条法律、行政法规、地方性法规、自治条例和单行条例、规章有下列情形之一的,由有关机关依照本法第八十八条规定的权限予以改变或者撤销:

  Article 87 If a national law, administrative regulation, local decree, autonomous decree and special decree, or administrative or local rule falls into any of the following categories, the relevant body shall amend or cancel it pursuant to the authority granted in Article 88 hereof:

  (一)超越权限的;

  (i) It exceeds the scope of its authority;

  (二)下位法违反上位法规定的;

  (ii) A lower level law contravenes a higher level law;

  (三)规章之间对同一事项的规定不一致,经裁决应当改变或者撤销一方的规定的;

  (iii) Different provisions exist in respect of the same matter among administrative or local rules, and pursuant to a ruling made by the relevant body, one of the provisions should be amended or canceled.

  (四)规章的规定被认为不适当,应当予以改变或者撤销的;

  (iv) The provision of an administrative or local rule is deemed inappropriate and should be amended or canceled;

  (五)违背法定程序的。

  (v) It violates legally prescribed procedure.

  第八十八条改变或者撤销法律、行政法规、地方性法规、自治条例和单行条例、规章的权限是:

  Article 88 The authorities for amending or canceling a national law, administrative regulation, local decree, autonomous decree or special decree, and administrative or local rule are as follows:

  (一)全国人民代表大会有权改变或者撤销它的常务委员会制定的不适当的法律,有权撤销全国人民代表大会常务委员会批准的违背宪法和本法第六十六条第二款规定的自治条例和单行条例;

  (i) The National People’s Congress has the authority to amend or cancel any inappropriate national law enacted by its Standing Committee, and to cancel any autonomous decree or special decree approved by its Standing Committee in violation of the Constitution or the provision of Paragraph 2 of Article 66 hereof;

  (二)全国人民代表大会常务委员会有权撤销同宪法和法律相抵触的行政法规,有权撤销同宪法、法律和行政法规相抵触的地方性法规,有权撤销省、自治区、直辖市的人民代表大会常务委员会批准的违背宪法和本法第六十六条第二款规定的自治条例和单行条例;

  (ii) The Standing Committee of National People’s Congress has the authority to cancel any administrative regulation which contravenes the Constitution or any national law, and to cancel any local decree which contravenes the Constitution or any national law or administrative regulation, and to or cancel any autonomous decree or special decree approved by the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of any province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the central government in violation of the Constitution or the provision of Paragraph 2 of Article 66 hereof;

  (三)国务院有权改变或者撤销不适当的部门规章和地方政府规章;

  (iii) The National People’s Congress has the authority to amend or cancel any inappropriate administrative rule or local rule;

  (四)省、自治区、直辖市的人民代表大会有权改变或者撤销它的常务委员会制定的和批准的不适当的地方性法规;

  (iv) The People’s Congress of a province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the central government and the Standing Committee thereof has the authority to amend or cancel any inappropriate local decree enacted by its Standing Committee or any inappropriate local rule approved by its Standing Committee;

  (五)地方人民代表大会常务委员会有权撤销本级人民政府制定的不适当的规章;

  (v) The Standing Committee of a local People’s Congress has the authority to cancel any inappropriate rule enacted by the local government;

  (六)省、自治区的人民政府有权改变或者撤销下一级人民政府制定的不适当的规章;

  (vi) The People’s Government of a province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the central government has the authority to amend or cancel any inappropriate local rule enacted by a lower level People’s Government;

  (七)授权机关有权撤销被授权机关制定的超越授权范围或者违背授权目的的法规,必要时可以撤销授权。

  (vii) The enabling body has the authority to cancel the administrative regulation or local decree which has been enacted by the enabled organ acting beyond its scope of authority or in violation of the objective of the enabling decision, and where necessary, the enabling body may revoke the authorization.

  第八十九条行政法规、地方性法规、自治条例和单行条例、规章应当在公布后的三十日内依照下列规定报有关机关备案:

  Article 89 Within 30 days of its promulgation, an administrative regulation, local decree, autonomous decree or special decree, or any administrative or local rule shall be submitted to the relevant body for filing in accordance with the following provisions:

  (一)行政法规报全国人民代表大会常务委员会备案;

  (i) An administrative regulation shall be submitted to the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress for filing;

  (二)省、自治区、直辖市的人民代表大会及其常务委员会制定的地方性法规,报全国人民代表大会常务委员会和国务院备案;较大的市的人民代表大会及其常务委员会制定的地方性法规,由省、自治区的人民代表大会常务委员会报全国人民代表大会常务委员会和国务院备案;

  (ii) A local decree enacted by the People’s Congress of a province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the central government and the Standing Committee thereof shall be submitted to the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress and the State Council for filing; a local decree enacted by the People’s Congress of a major city and the Standing Committee thereof shall be submitted to the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress and the State Council for filing through the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of the province or autonomous region in which the city is located;

  (三)自治州、自治县制定的自治条例和单行条例,由省、自治区、直辖市的人民代表大会常务委员会报全国人民代表大会常务委员会和国务院备案;

  (iii) An autonomous or special decree enacted by an autonomous prefecture or autonomous county shall be submitted to the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress and the State Council for filing through the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of the province or autonomous region in which the prefecture or county is located;

  (四)部门规章和地方政府规章报国务院备案;地方政府规章应当同时报本级人民代表大会常务委员会备案;

  (iv) An administrative or local rule shall be submitted to the State Council for filing; a local rule shall be concurrently submitted to the Standing Committee of the local People’s Congress for filing;

  较大的市的人民政府制定的规章应当同时报省、自治区的人民代表大会常务委员会和人民政府备案;

  local rules enacted by a major city shall also be concurrently submitted to the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress and the People’s Government of the province or autonomous region for filing;

  (五)根据授权制定的法规应当报授权决定规定的机关备案。

  (v) An administrative regulation or local decree enacted pursuant to an enabling decision shall be submitted to the body specified therein for filing.

  第九十条国务院、中央军事委员会、最高人民法院、最高人民检察院和各省、自治区、直辖市的人民代表大会常务委员会认为行政法规、地方性法规、自治条例和单行条例同宪法或者法律相抵触的,可以向全国人民代表大会常务委员会书面提出进行审查的要求,由常务委员会工作机构分送有关的专门委员会进行审查、提出意见。

  Article 90 Where the State Council, the Central Military Committee, the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, the various special committees of the Standing Committee and the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of various provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government deems that an administrative regulation, local decree, autonomous decree or special decree contravenes the Constitution or a national law, it may make a written request to the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress for review, and the office of operation of the Standing Committee shall distribute such request to the relevant special committees for review and comments.

  前款规定以外的其他国家机关和社会团体、企业事业组织以及公民认为行政法规、地方性法规、自治条例和单行条例同宪法或者法律相抵触的,可以向全国人民代表大会常务委员会书面提出进行审查的建议,由常务委员会工作机构进行研究,必要时,送有关的专门委员会进行审查、提出意见。

  Where any state organ and social group, enterprise or non-enterprise institution or citizen other than the bodies enumerated above, deems that an administrative regulation, local decree, autonomous decree or special decree contravenes the Constitution or a national law, it may make a written proposal to the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress for review, and the office of operation of the Standing Committee shall study such proposal, and where necessary, it shall distribute such proposal to the relevant special committees for review and comments.

  第九十一条全国人民代表大会专门委员会在审查中认为行政法规、地方性法规、自治条例和单行条例同宪法或者法律相抵触的,可以向制定机关提出书面审查意见;也可以由法律委员会与有关的专门委员会召开联合审查会议,要求制定机关到会说明情况,再向制定机关提出书面审查意见。

  Article 91 Where a special committee of the National People’s Congress deems that an administrative regulation, local decree, autonomous decree and special decree contravenes the Constitution or a national law during its review thereof, it may present a written review comment to the enacting body; and a joint review session may also be convened between the Legislative Committee and the relevant special committee, and the enacting body shall be summoned to the session to give explanation, and thereafter a subsequent written review comment shall be sent to the enacting body.

  制定机关应当在两个月内研究提出是否修改的意见,并向全国人民代表大会法律委员会和有关的专门委员会反馈。

  The enacting body shall conduct deliberation and present its opinion on whether an amendment shall be made, and shall report back to the Legislative Committee and the relevant special committee.

  全国人民代表大会法律委员会和有关的专门委员会审查认为行政法规、地方性法规、自治条例和单行条例同宪法或者法律相抵触而制定机关不予修改的,可以向委员长会议提出书面审查意见和予以撤销的议案,由委员长会议决定是否提请常务委员会会议审议决定。

  Where a special committee of the National People’s Congress deems that an administrative regulation, local decree, autonomous decree or special decree contravenes the Constitution or a national law during its review thereof and the enacting body refuses to make any amendment, it may submit to the Chairman’s Committee a written review comment and a bill for its cancellation, and the Chairman’s Committee shall decide whether to bring it to the Standing Committee session for deliberation and decision.

  第九十二条其他接受备案的机关对报送备案的地方性法规、自治条例和单行条例、规章的审查程序,按照维护法制统一的原则,由接受备案的机关规定。

  Article 92 In respect of the local decrees, autonomous decrees or special decrees, and administrative or local rules which are submitted to other bodies for filing, the body receiving them shall formulate the relevant review procedures consistent with the principle of safeguarding uniformity of law.

  第六章 附则

  Chapter Six: Supplementary Provisions

  第九十三条中央军事委员会根据宪法和法律,制定军事法规。

  Article 93 The Central Military Commission shall enact military decrees in accordance with the Constitution and national laws.

  中央军事委员会各总部、军兵种、军区,可以根据法律和中央军事委员会的军事法规、决定、命令,在其权限范围内,制定军事规章。

  The various headquarters, divisions, military regions of the Central Military Commission may enact military rules consistent with its scope of authority in accordance with the relevant national laws and military decrees, decisions and orders.

  军事法规、军事规章在武装力量内部实施。

  Military decrees and military rules shall be implemented within the armed forces.

  军事法规、军事规章的制定、修改和废止办法,由中央军事委员会依照本法规定的原则规定。

  The measures for the enactment, amendment or repeal of military decrees and military rules shall be enacted by the Central Military Committee based on the principles set forth herein.

  第九十四条 本法自2000年7月1日起施行。

  Article 94 This Law shall become operative as of July 1, 2000.

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学员 tueiwi:
自我感觉LEC考得不错,感谢外语教育网的法律英语课程老师。
学员 tyjf:
外语教育网的法律英语信息不错,希望有朝一日可以成为法律达人,顶起!
学员 Alice12345:
我报的是法律英语的辅导班。因为英语底子不太好,一直没有太大的进步。后来,我在外语教育网报名参加了网上培训。感觉老师很负责。课程内容也详细。在老师的帮助下,感觉我的法律英语的水平得到了长足的提高。很感谢法律英语的老师的教导。谢谢老师!
学员 lionm:
一直在学法律英语,但总是找不到门路。不但单词多,而且本来认识的单词意思又变了,头痛死了。听了李文沛老师的法律英语课程后,我觉得好多了。希望能网校的法律英语课程能继续开个中级班。
学员 xyz521:
我一直在找法律英语的课程都没找到,偶然的机会来到外语教育网,发现这里的法律英语的课程真的很不错、信息也很齐全,绝对支持哦!
学员 futami:
以前自己看书,感觉非常吃力,很多地方看不懂。抱着试试看的心理,我报名参加了外语教育网的基础法律英语辅导。沙老师和李老师讲得非常好,重点、难点,经过老师的系统讲解,我都基本掌握了。就连冥思苦想都不能解决的难题,也通过答疑板请教老师而得到了满意的答复。在此衷心感谢网校的老师。
学员 hnigni:
我是法律专业的本科生,因为工作的需要,必须得会法律英语,可之前在学校的时候没好好学过啊。正头疼,同事推荐了外语教育网,于是我就报了名,开始学习。在学习过程中,发现沙老师的课真的很不错,她不但英语口语发音标准,而且她授课的内容通俗易懂,很方便我们接受和学习。另外,外语教育网的教学模式很适合我这种已经参加了工作的人,可以让我兼顾工作和学习,也很不错。特此,到网上来赞一下沙老师!沙老师,谢谢您!也谢谢网校的良好服务!在外语教育网学习,真值!
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