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英语专四:英语专四完型考前战略

2010-09-10 11:16外语教育网

  英语专四:英语专四完型考前战略——英语专四完型对于专四考试来说很重要,快来看看英语专四:英语专四完型考前战略吧,外语教育网助你通过英语专四考试。

  宏观上处理好篇章与空格之间的关系 

  完形填空的测试目的是测试学生运用语言的综合能力。完形填空的考试重点是上下文的联系和短语结构的搭配关系。由于考试时间紧,许多考生在回答这部分题的时候,往往不顾整个篇章的结构、大意或文体,一开始就把注意力放在空格选项上,孤立地研究单个选项,这就脱离了文章整体,答题的准确率也会大受影响。

  因此,要做好这部分试题考生首先必须大体理解篇章的主要内容、逻辑关系,从而判断出作者的意图及归纳或演绎的思路;另外,考生在答题之前,还要对文章的文体有所了解,这有利于考生根据不同的文体对不同的或相近的选项做出正确的选择。如文学材料、科普文章、新闻报道等由于文体上的不同,它们在用词和句子结构上都有所不同。请看下面例子:

  Vitamins are organic compounds necessary in small amounts in the diet for the

  normal growth and maintenance of life of animals, including man.

  They do not provide energy, ___1___ do they construct or build any part of

  the body. They are needed for ___2___ foods into energy and body maintenance.

  There are thirteen or more of them, and if ___3___ is missing, a deficiency disease becomes ___4___.

  1. A. either B. so C. nor D. never

  2. A. shifting B. transferring

  C. altering D. transforming 

  3. A. any B. some

  C. anything D. something 

  4. A. serious B. apparent C. severe D. fatal

  通读全文后可知,这是一篇有关科普知识的短文,一般来说科普知识文章以客观陈述为突出特点,用词比较正式,句子结构比较严密,因此在选择时要在宏观上考虑到这些因素。比如第四空,从科学常识可知,缺乏任何一种维生素都不至于使疾病严重(serious)、致命(fatal),故应排除选项A和D。severe(严厉的)不能用来修饰疾病。因此,选B apparent既合乎句意,搭配又得当。

  另外,完形填空的空格没有任何一个是孤立地存在的,必须把它们放在文章的语言环境中进行逐个推敲,同时利用自己对各种材料描写、陈述内容的了解,作出正确选择。

  PART Ⅰ

  Decide which of the choices given below would correctly complete the passage if

  inserted in the corresponding blanks. Mark the correct choice for each blank on

  your ANSWER SHEET.

  The United States is wellknown for its network of major highways designed to help a driver get from one place to another in the shortest possible time. ___1___ these wide modern roads are generally ___2___

  and well maintained, with___3___ sharp curves and straight sections,

  a direct route is not always the most ___4___ one. Large highways often pass ___5___ scenic areas and interesting small towns. Furthermore

  , these highways generally ___6___ large urban centers, which means that they become crowded with ___7___ traffic during rush hours, ___8___ the “fast, direct” route becomes a very slow route.

  However, there is almost always another route to take ___9___ you are

  not in a hurry. Not far from the ___10___ new “superhighways”, there are often older, ___11___ heavily traveled roads which go through

  the countryside. ___12___ of these are good twolane roads; others are uneven roads curving through the country. These secondary routes may go up steep slopes, along high ___13___ , or down frightening hillside to towns ___14___ in deep valleys. Through these less direct routes, longer

  and slower, they generally go to places ___15___ the air is clean and

  scenery is beautiful, and the driver may have a chance to get a fresh, clean view of the world.

  1. A. Although B. Since C. Because D. Therefore

  2. A. stable B. splendid C. smooth D. complicated

  3. A. little B. few C. much D. many

  4. A. terrible B. possible C. enjoyable D. profitable

  5. A. to B. into C. over D. by

  6. A. lead B. connect C. collect D. communicate

  7. A. large B. fast C. high D. heavy

  8. A. when B. for C. but D. that

  9. A. unless B. if C. as D. since

  10. A. relatively B. regularly C. respectively D. reasonably

  11. A. and B. less C. more D. or

  12. A. All B. Several C. Lots D. Some

  13. A. rocks B. cliffs C. roads D. paths

  14. A. lying B. laying C. laid D. lied

  15. A. there B. when C. which D. where

  PART Ⅱ

  SECTION A READING COMPREHENSION[25 MIN.]

  In this section there are four passages followed by fifteen questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Mark your choice on your ANSWER SHEET.

  TEXT A

  Before the mid1860’s, the impact of the railroads in the United States was limited, in the sense that the tracks ended at this Missouri River, approximately the center of the country. At the point the trains turned their freight,

  mail, and passengers over to steamboats, wagons, and stagecoaches. This meant that wagon freighting, stagecoaching, and steamboating did not come to an end when the first train appeared; rather they became supplements or feeders. Each new

  “endoftrack” became a center for animaldrawn or waterborne transportation. The major effect of the railroad was to shorten the distance that had to be covered by the older, slower, and more costly means. Wagon freighters continued operating throughout the 1870’s and 1880’s and into the 1890’s. Although over constantly shrinking routes, and coaches and wagons continued to crisscross the West wherever the rails had not yet been laid. The beginning of a major change was foreshadowed in the later 1860’s, when the Union Pacific Railroad at last began

  to build westward from the Central Plains city of Omaha to meet the Central Pacific Railroad advancing eastward from California through the formidable barrier of the Sierra Nevada. Although President Abraham Lincoln signed the original Pacific Railroad bill in 1862 and a revised, financially much more generous version in 1864, little construction was completed until 1865 on the Central Pacific and 1866 on the Union Pacific. The primary reason was skepticism that a Railroad built through so challenging and thinly settled a stretch of desert, mountain, and semiarid plain could pay a profit. In the words of an economist, this was a case of “premature enterprise”, where not only the cost of construction but also the very high risk deterred private investment. In discussing the Pacific Railroad bill, the chair of the congressional committee bluntly stated that without government subsidy no one would undertake so unpromising a venture; yet it was a national necessity to link East and West together. 

  16. The author refers to the impact of railroads before the late 1860’s as “limited” because ____

  A. the track did not take the direct route from one city to the next

  B. passengers and freight had to transfer to other modes of transportation to reach western destinations

  C. passengers preferred stagecoaches

  D. railroad travel was quite expensive 

  17. What can be inferred about coaches and wagon freighters as the railroad expanded? 

  A. They developed competing routes.

  B. Their drivers refused to work for the railroads.

  C. They began to specialize in private investment.

  D. There were insufficient numbers of trained people to operate them. 

  18. Why does the author mention the Sierra Nevada in line 17? 

  A. To argue that a more direct route to the West could have been taken.

  B. To identify a historically significant mountain range in the West.

  C. To point out the location of a serious train accident.

  D. To give an example of an obstacle faced by the central pacific.

  19. The word “subsidy” in line 27 is closest in meaning to _____.

  A. persuasion B. financing C. explanation D. penalty 

  TEXT B

  Certainly no creature in the sea is odder than the common sea cucumber. All living creature, especially human beings, have their peculiarities, but everything about the little sea cucumber seems unusual. What else can be said about a bizarre animal that, among other eccentricities, eats mud, feeds almost continuously day and night but can live without eating for long periods, and can be poisonous but is considered supremely edible by gourmets?For some fifty million years, despite all its eccentricities, the sea cucumber has subsisted on its diet of mud. It is adaptable enough to live attached to rocks by its tube feet, under rocks in shallow water, or on the surface of mud flats. Common in cool water on both Atlantic and Pacific shores, it has the ability to suck up mud or sand and digest whatever nutrients are present.Sea cucumbers come in a variety of colors, ranging from black to reddishbrown to sandcolor and nearly white. One form even has vivid purple tentacles. Usually the creatures are cucumbershaped—hence their name—and because they are typically rock inhabitants, this shape, combined with flexibility, enables them to squeeze into crevices where they are safe from predators and ocean currents.

  Although they have voracious appetites, eating day and night, sea cucumbers have the capacity to become quiescent and live at a low metabolic rate—feeding sparingly or not at all for long periods, so that the marine organisms that provid their food have a chance to multiply. If it were not for this faculty, they would devour all the food available in a short time and would probably starve themselves out of existence.

  But the most spectacular thing about the sea cucumber is the way it defends itself. Its major enemies are fish and crabs, when attacked, it squirts all its internal organs into water. It also casts off attached structures such as tentacles. The sea cucumber will eviscerate and regenerate itself if it is attacked or even touched; it will do the same if the surrounding water temperature is too high or if the water becomes too polluted.

  20. According to the passage, why is the shape of sea cucumbers important?

  A. It helps them to digest their food.

  B. It helps them to protect themselves from danger.

  C. It makes it easier for them to move through the mud.

  D. It makes them attractive to fish. 

  21. The fourth paragraph of the passage primarily discusses ____.

  A. the reproduction of sea cucumbers

  B. the food sources of sea cucumbers

  C. the eating habits of sea cucumbers

  D. threats to sea cucumbers’ existence 

  22. What can be inferred about the defence mechanisms of the sea cucumber?

  A. They are very sensitive to surrounding stimuli.

  B. They are almost useless.

  C. They require group cooperation.

  D. They are similar to those of most sea creatures. 

  23. Which of the following would NOT cause a sea cucumber to release its internal organs into the water?

  A. A touch. B. Food.

  C. Unusually warm water. D. Pollution. 

  TEXT C

  Human beings have used tools for a very long time. In some parts of the world you can still find tools that people used more than two million years ago. They made these tools by hitting one stone against another. In this way, they broke off pieces from one of the stones. These chips of stone were usually sharp on one side. People used them for cutting meat and skin from dead animals, and also for making other tools out of wood. Human beings needed to use tools because they did not have sharp teeth like other meateating animals, such as lions and tigers. Tools helped people to get food more easily. 

  Working with tools also helped to develop human intelligence. The human brain grew bigger, and human beings began to invent more and more tools and machines. The stone chip was one of the first tools that people used, and perhaps it is

  the most important. Some scientists say that it was the key to success of mankind.

  Since 1960 a new kind of tool has appeared. This is the silicon chip—a little chip of silicon crystal. It is smaller than a fingernail, but it can store more than a million “bits” of information. It is an electronic brain.Every year these chips get cleverer, but their size gets smaller, and their cost gets less. They are used in watches, calculators and intelligent machines that we can use in many ways.

  In the future we will not need to work with tools in the old way. Machines will do everything for us. They will even talk and play games with us. People will have plenty of spare time. But what will they do with it?

  Human beings used stone chips for more than two million years, but human life changed very little in that time. We have used silicon chips for only a few years, but life is changing faster every day. What will life be like twenty years from now? What will the world be like two million years from now?

  24. The stone chip is thought to be the most important tool because it ______.

  A. was one of the first tools

  B. developed human capabilities

  C. led to the invention of machines

  D. was crucial to the development of mankind 

  25. At the end of the passage the author seems to suggest that life in future is ______.

  A. disastrous B. unpredictable

  C. exciting D. colorful 

  TEXT D

  California is a land of variety and contrast. Almost every type of physical land feature, sort of arctic ice fields and tropical jungles can be found within its borders. Sharply contrasting types of land often lie very close to one another.

  People living in Bakersfield, for instance, can visit the Pacific Ocean and the coastal plain, the fertile San Joaquin Valley, the arid Mojave Desert, and the high Sierra Nevada, all within a radius of about 100 miles. In other areas it

  is possible to go snow skiing in the morning and surfing in the evening of the same day, without having to travel long distance.

  Contrast abounds in California. The highest point in the United States (outside Alaska ) is in California, and so is the lowest point (including Alaska). Mount Whitney, 14,494 feet above sea level, is separated from Death Valley, 282 feet below sea level, by a distance of only 100 miles. The two areas have a difference in altitude of almost three miles.

  California has deep, clear mountain lakes like Lake Tahoe, the deepest in the country, but it also has shallow, salty desert lakes. It has Lake Tulainyo, 12,020 feet above sea level, and the lowest lake in the country, the Salton Sea, 236 feet below sea level. Some of its lakes, like Owens Lake in Death Valley, are not lakes at all: they are driedup lake beds.In addition to mountains, lakes, valleys, deserts, and plateaus, California has its Pacific coastline, stretching longer than the coastlines of Oregon and Washington combined.

  26. Which of the following is the lowest point in the United States?

  A. Lake Tulainyo.B. Mojave desert.

  C. Death Valley.D. The Salton Sea. 

  27. Where is the highest point in the United States located?

  A. Lake Tahoe.B. Sierra Nevada.

  C. Mount Whitney.D. Alaska. 

  28. How far away is Death Valley from Mount Whitney?

  A. About 3 miles.B. Only 100 miles.

  C. 282 feet.D. 14,494 feet. 

  29. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as being within a radius of about 100 miles of Bakersfield?

  A. The Pacific Ocean.

  B. San Joaquin Valley.

  C. Mojave Desert.

  D. Oregon and Washington. 

  30. Which statement best demonstrates that California is a land of variety and contrast

  A. The highest lake in California is Lake Tulainyo.

  B. It is possible to go surfing and snow skiing in some parts of California without having to travel long distance. 

  C. Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley, Mojave Desert and the Pacific Ocean

  all lie within a radius of about 100 miles. 

  D. Owens Lake, in Death Valley, is not really a lake at all. 

  SKIMMING AND SCANNING [5 MIN.]

  In this section there are five passages followed by ten questions or unfinished statements. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.

  TEXT E

  First read the following question.

  31. The purpose of the passage is to _____.

  A. describe ways of eliminating mosquito larvae

  B. demonstrate the great differences among kinds of mosquitoes

  C. show reasons for the high survival rate of mosquitoes

  D. give a general description of mosquito development 

  Now read Text E quickly and mark your answer on your ANSWER SHEET.

  Each variety of mosquito has its favored kind of water accumulation for

  breeding, and almost every imaginable type of still water has been used by at least one kind of mosquito to lay its eggs. After the eggs hatch, the larvae continue to be closely associated with water’s surface at the tail ends of their bodies. Because the larvae develop this way, they are never found in the open water of lakes where they would merely serve as fish food, or in places where they would be damaged by wave action or water currents.

  TEXT F

  First read the following questions.

  32. The main idea of the passage is _____.

  A. how to play tennis

  B. how to win a tennis match

  C. the general introduction of the game

  D. what is a game in tennis 

  33. The author drives his point home by _____.

  A. giving the details

  B. explaining step by step

  C. offering strong proofs

  D. making vivid descriptions 

  Now read Text F quickly and mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.

  Let’s talk about tennis between just two players. You know that the two players hit a ball across the net. One side must hit the ball so that the other player cannot hit it back over the net. The ball must stay within the lines. If the

  first player can’t do this, the opponent gets a point.

  The players always stop when one wins a point. To start play again, one player will serve. He or she throws the ball into the air and hits it. The ball must cross the net without hitting it. The other player must hit the ball back across the net before it hits the ground twice. If the ball doesn’t hit the net or the ground twice, the players keep hitting it over the net. This goes on until someone misses.

  A player needs four points to win a game. If both players have three points,

  then one must get two more points together to win. When one player wins six games, it is called a set. If each side wins five games, then one must win two more games together to win the set. If each player wins six games, they play one more game of seven points. A match usually has three or five sets.

  TEXT G

  First read the following question.

  34. While at London airports, you have to present your passport at _____.

  A. the carousel

  B. the Immigration Hall

  C. the customs

  D. the Arrivals Hall 

  Now read Text G quickly and mark your answer on your ANSWER SHEET.

  Arriving at London airports

  Just follow these simple steps for a troublefree arrival.

  Follow the ARRIVALS sign if you are ending your journey in London or

  transferring to a UK domestic flight.

  This will take you to the Immigration Hall where you must present your

  passport and any necessary visa/health documentation.

  At HEATHROW airport proceed downstairs to claim your baggage from the

  carousel indicating your flight number. At GATEWICK airport proceed

  downstairs in the North Terminal to claim your baggage from the carousel

  indicating your flight number. Free trolleys are available for your bags.

  To clear customs take the Red Channel if you have goods to declare or the

  Green Channel if you have no goods to declare.

  You will then be in the Arrivals Hall. From here you can obtain transport in

  to central London; transfer between GATEWICK and HEATHROW airports and

  transfer to UK domestic flights.

  TEXT H

  First read the following questions.

  35. The total amount of cooking time for each vegetable is ______.

  A. 4 minutes for the potatoes and 10 minutes for the cucumber

  B. 10 minutes for the potatoes and 4 minutes for the cucumber

  C. 4 minutes for the cucumber and 14 minutes for the potatoes

  D. 14 minutes for the cucumber and 4 minutes for the potatoes 

  36. Which of the following statements agrees with the menu directions?

  A. The dish is enough to go round.

  B. Four serving spoons are needed.

  C. The dish is to be shared by four persons.

  D. Four guests can help themselves to the dish. 

  37. According to this recipe, _____.

  A. parsley, salt and pepper are to be added by a sprinkler

  B. the dish has to be properly seasoned with salt and pepper

  C. parsley is used for decoration

  D. the dish must be tossed to everybody’s taste 

  Now read Text H quickly and mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.

  Recipe

  Potatoes and Cucumber with Parsley

  2 potatoes, about 3/4 pound

  1 cucumber, about 3/4 pound

  1 tablespoon butter

  1 tablespoon finely chopped parsley

  Salt and pepper to taste

  Peel the potatoes. Split them in half lengthwise, then cut into quarters.

  Put the potatoes in a small skillet with water to cover. Bring to the boil and cook about 10 minutes.

  Meanwhile scrape the cucumber. Cut it into 11/2inch lengths. Cut each length in half.

  When the potatoes have cooked 10 minutes, add the cucumbers. Cook about four minutes. Drain.

  Add the butter to the vegetables and toss. Sprinkle with parsley, salt and pepper to taste and serve.

  Yielding: 4 servings.

  TEXT I

  First read the following questions.

  38. How does a student know what the homework assignments are?

  A. Prof. Klammer announces them in class.

  B. The student reads the list on the next page.

  C. Prof. Klammer gives a list every week in class.

  D. The student goes to the professor’s office and asks. 

  39. If a freshman thinks that he might major in history, what is the maximum length his paper can be?

  A. Fifteen pages. B. Twentyfive pages.

  C. Ten pages. D. No maximum. 

  40. If a student cannot see Prof. Klammer during her office hours, what should he do?

  A. See her after class.

  B. Call her at home.

  C. Ask another student.

  D. Make an appointment with her. 

  Now read Text I quickly and mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.

  COURSE OUTLINE FOR HISTORY 101, 

  DR. JANE KLAMMER

  COURSE: History 101 INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Jane Klammer

  “Introduction to American OFFICE: 305 Marshall Hall

  History” OFFICE HOURS:  11.15~12.30 M W F

  CLASS: 363 Marshall Hall 3.35~5.00 T Th

  10:10~11:00 M W F Other times by appointment

  TELEPHONE: 255-4786

  TEXTBOOK: Green, Robert P., The American Tradition: A History of the United States, Charles E. Merrill publishing Co. Columbus, Ohio 1984(available at the College Bookstore) 

  COURSE REQUIREMENTS:

  midterm exam: October 10 20% of the final grade

  final exam: December 10 40% of the final grade

  term paper due: December 15 40% of the final grade

  Attendance is not required, but you are responsible for all the information

  given in the class lectures. In the lectures I will talk about the chapters in the textbook and other material that I choose to supplement the course. The exams will cover all this information. Therefore, I advise you to come to the class as much as possible. If you have to miss a class, be sure to get the class notes from another student. 

  Your homework assignments are listed on the next page. You are supposed to read the chapter about which I will be lecturing before you come to class. This is to make sure that you understand as much as possible while taking notes in my lectures. Be prepared when you come to class. If there are any changes in the assigned homework readings, I will announce them in class.

  The term paper is 40 percent of your final grade. It should not exceed fifteen pages. (Anyone thinking of majoring in history may write twentyfive pages.)

  Before the midterm exam you will choose the topic for your paper. 

  Have a good semester!

  重点词汇

  twolane: 双车道

  freight: 货运

  stagecoach: 公共马车

  waterborne: 水运地, 水上地

  shrink: 收缩

  foreshadow: 成为前兆; 暗示; 预示

  skepticism: 怀疑论

  semiarid: 半干旱的

  deter: 制止; 使断念头

  subsidy:补助金;津贴

  bluntly:坦率地;率直地

  unpromising: 无前途的

  sea cucumber: 海参

  bizarre: 奇异的

  eccentricity: 古怪;怪癖;古怪的行为

  edible: 可食用的

  gourmet: 美食家

  subsist: 生存,存在

  tentacle: 触须;触角

  crevice: 裂缝

  predator: 掠夺者;食肉动物

  voracious:狼吞虎咽的;贪婪的

  metabolic: 变化的;新陈代谢的

  quiescent:静止的;不动的

  ratefeeding: 供给饲料的

  multiply: 繁殖

  squirt: 喷出,溅出

  silicon crystal: 硅晶体

  eviscerate: 取出内脏;取出精华部分

  surf: 冲浪

  altitude: 高度

  abound:大量存在;充满

  accumulation: 累计;聚集物

  hatch:孵化

  larvae:幼虫

  serve: 发球

  proceed: 开始;进行下去

  claim: 认领;主张

  carousel: (机场中的)行李传送带;马术比赛

  to clear customs: 通关

  declare:申报

  parsley:西芹

  skillet: 长柄浅锅

  scrape: 刮,擦

  toss: 颠炒

  sprinkle:洒

  yielding:产出

  supplement: 增补

  参考答案及详解

  1. A) 此空四个选项都是从属连词,但是它们的属性是不同的,例如:although是表示转折关系的;since,because,therefore是表示原因关系的。通过阅

  读此空所在句得知大概句义为:“尽管这些宽阔的现代化公路通常很平坦且维护良好,转弯也很少,但是一直保持笔直的公路不总是令人赏心悦目”。根据语义线索和语法线索可知此空应填表示转折关系的选项A。

  2. C) 根据词汇线索和词义搭配可知,stable,splendid和complicated一般不能用来修饰roads。

  3. B)根据语义线索可推断此空正确答案为选项B few。

  4. C) 根据上下文可推测出如果高速公路总是保持笔直,对于驾驶者来说是非常枯燥的,因此本空的正确答案为C enjoyable。

  5. D) 介词by能和动词pass搭配,意为“经过,掠过”。

  6. B) 本句中的联系副词Furthermore说明本句是对上一句的进一步补充和信息的增加,由此可推测本句句义为高速公路不仅经过风景区和乡村,通常还“将庞大的都市中心区连接起来”。故正确答案为B。

  7. D) “交通拥挤”用heavy 和traffic搭配。

  8. A)通过分析可知,这里使用的是一个非限定性定语从句,四个选项中只有A when 具备此语法功能。

  9. B)根据上下句关系可推断此句为条件句,故选项B为正确答案。

  10. A)根据主句中的“older ... roads”可推断此空需要填一个比较意义的副词,以构成对比关系,故选项A relatively“相应地,相对地”为正确答案。

  其他三词词义分别为:regularly“有规律地,定期地”;respectively“各自地”;reasonably“有理由地”。

  11. B)根据此空前后词及结构可断定此空应使用比较级,故可排除A和D。另外根据上下文可推测此空应为less,因为“more heavily traveled”意为“车辆拥挤的”公路,与常识不符。

  12. D)从下文的others可知此空正确答案为D some。

  13. B)根据上文的slopes和下文的hillsides就可以断定这里需要一个表示路况不好的词,选项A rocks意义不符,故只有B cliffs “悬崖” 为正确答案。

  14. A)根据题目和选项可断定此空应为towns的后置定语,由此可猜测句义为“位于深谷中的城镇”,“位于”lie是不及物动词,不能以过去分词的形式出现作名词的后置修饰语,故正确答案为lie的现在分词形式lying。

  15. D)定语从句修饰places用where来引导。

  16. B)根据文章前五句可知,在十九世纪六十年代晚期前铁路在美国的影响是有限的“limited”,当时铁路只从美国东部修到了美国中部,运到美国西部地区的货物只有在铁路的尽头“endoftrack”改用其他的运输方式,比如:汽船、马车等,它们的运输效率可想而知。故选项B为正确答案。

  17. D)这是一道推论题。可用排除法做此题。根据文章第六行至第七行“rather they became supplements or feeders”和第十行至第十三行“Wagon freighters continued operating throughout the 1870’s and 1880’s and into the 1890’s. Although over constantly shrinking routes, and coaches and wagons continued to crisscross the West wherever the rails had not yet been laid.”可知随着铁路线的不断延伸,马车货运的路线日益减少,虽然马车货运经营者们继续在西部发展货运线路,但是它们只是铁路运输的补充。因此选项A“他们发展了有竞争性的线路”可以排除。而选项B、C文中根本没有提及。故只有选项D为正确答案。

  18. D)根据“the Sierra Nevada”所在句可知作者提到它是因为它是修建横跨东西铁路的一个巨大的障碍,故D为正确答案。

  19. B)Subsidy意为“补助金,津贴”,与financing意义相符。

  20. B)通过阅读文章可以排除选项A、C、D,因为文中没有提及,故选项B为正确答案。

  21. C)此题为段落主旨题。通过阅读第四段可知作者都是讲述海参的进食习惯,故选项C为正确答案。

  22. A)此题为推论题。根据最后一段可知海参在受到外界刺激时,会做出一定的反应,这也反映出它的防御机制非常敏感,故A为正确答案。

  23. B)此题为细节题。根据最后一段可知惟有food不会使海参将体内器官吐出来,故其为正确答案。

  24. D) 这是一道细节题。根据文章第二段尾句“Some scientists say that it was the key to the success of mankind”可知“stone chip”对于人类的发展起到了非常重要的作用,这与D正好相符。

  25. B)在文章最后一段中作者说人类在过去的几百万年时间里一直使用“stone chip”,人类社会发生的变化很小。而我们使用“silicon chips”才不过几年,生活却发生了巨大的变化。于是作者发出了疑问:“二十年后的生活会是什么样子的呢?”,“二百万年后的世界又会是什么样子呢?”,表明将来的生活无法预料,这与选项B相符。

  26. C) 这是一道细节题。根据第三段所给的海拔高度,可知美国最低点在death valley。

  27. D)此题很容易误选为C,这是因为第三段提到Mount Whitney的海拔高度;但是要注意此段第二句提到美国最高点时在括号中补充说明这个最高点是在Alaska以外的。这就说明美国的海拔最高点不是Mount Whitney,而是位于Alaska。

  28. B)这是一道细节题。根据第三段可找出答案。

  29. D)根据第二段可知答案。

  30. C)文中说加利福尼亚是一个地貌多样,富于变化的地方,而选项C是一个最突出的例子。

  31. C) 32. B) 33. B) 34. B) 35. C) 36. C)

  37. B) 38. B) 39. B) 40. D)

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