1.逻辑表达错误 2.介词使用错误 3.代词使用错误 4.非谓语动词使用错误 5.主谓语前后不一致错误 6.名词的错误 7.代词使用错误 8.冠词的错误 9.句子结构的错误 10.时态语态和语气的使用错误 11.易混淆词的使用错误。
1 . 指代错误。主要是第三人称代词指代的误用；不定代词 one 和 those 与人称代词 you 和 them 的混用及人于指物的误用等。 2. 关系代词的误用。主要为 that 与 which ， who 与 which ， as 与 which 的误用； what 与 that 的混用。 3. 形式代词 it 与 this ， that 的误用。如： find this important to preview the lesson （这里的 this 应改为形式宾语 it ）。
4. 不定代词的误用。主要为不定代词与指示代词 these 或人称代词的误用； someone/somebody ， everyone/everybody 被误用作复数指代； some- ， any- 集合成代词与 no- 类合成代词的混用等。
A knowledge of several languages is essential to
other majors’ study because without them one 1.__________
can read books only in translation.
本句中 without them 指的是：没有几们语言的知识。这里错误地使用了 them 来指代 a knowledge of several languages ，因为其中 knowledge 是中心词，所以要把 them 改为 it 。
To be frank, that is a great relief to have the task 1.__________
fulfilled in so short a time.
本句中 that 指的是“ to have the task fulfilled in so short a time ”，前者是后者的形式主语，而形式主语只能是 it ，因此必须把 that 改为 it 。
The teacher asked them who had completed their 1.__________
tests to leave the room as quietly as possible.
这句话看似没有错误，结果也十分完整，然而，它将代词宾格 them 与指示代词 those 的用法混淆了。因为一般来说，人称代词后面应该保留有修饰成分，如果保留 them ，那么这句话则必须改为： The teacher asked them to leave the room as quietly as possible. 这不符合修改的规则，故只能将 them 改为 those ，此时 those 作为指示代词，后面可以接有从句成分。
Western culture tends to ignore or take it for granted 1.__________
the non-verbal part of conversations, defining good
communication as " speaking well" .
本句中， it 作为形式主语，一般用于结构“ take it for granted that… ”，然而本句中没有出现从句，而只有名词短语“ the non-verbal part of conversation ”作为宾语，因此不需要形式宾语，应该将 it 删去。
1 First and most important is its extraordinary receptive
and adaptable heterogeneousness --- the ease
and readiness with that has taken to itself material 1.__________
from almost everywhere in the world and has made
the old elements of language its own.
2 In most advanced English courses, time is usually
set aside for conversation lessons. This can be 2.__________
the most difficult and most rewarding of all
the lessons the teacher is called upon to conduct.
3 They gain such mental food that few companions 3.__________
can supply. Even while resting from their labors
they are, through the books they read, equipping
themselves to perform those labors more inefficiently.
4 Before the time of Galileo, learned men believed
that large bodies fell more rapidly towards the earth
than small one, because Aristotle said so. 4.__________
5 But Galileo, going to the top of the Leaning Tower
of Pisa, let fall two unequal stones, and proved to some
friends, he had brought there to see his experiment, 5.__________
that Aristotle was in error.
6 Deep in the dense forest these tourists finally
found the place where they visited ten years ago. 6.__________
7 It was a beautifully decorated ancient house which 7.__________
door opened to the east.
8 What has been left was a table in one corner of
the living-room which two legs were broken. 8.__________
9 Some people think of the protection of our
environment as the mere protection of a few
animals and flowers. Actually natural conversation
is far from that some people imagine to be. 9.__________
10 It has become a question of whether man can
survive at all in the world in which he is creating. 10.__________