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2010年全国职称英语综合类(A级)考试真题及答案

2010-11-27 08:15   来源:外语教育网编辑整理       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

 第一部分:词汇选项(第1-15题,每题1分,共15分)

  下面每个句子中均有1个词或短语划有底横线,请为每处划线部分确定1个意义最为接近的选项。

  1. Her father was a quiet man with graceful manners.

  A. bad

  B. polite

  C. similar

  D. usual

  2. Patricia stared at the other girls with resentment.

  A. love

  B. surprise

  C. doubt

  D. anger

  3. Your dog needs at least 20 minutes of vigorous exercise every day.

  A. energentic

  B. physical

  C. regular

  D. free

  4. Our aggrangements were thrown into complete turmoil.

  A. failure

  B. confusion

  C. doubt

  D. relief

  5. Steep stairs can present a particular hazard to older people.

  A. evidence

  B. danger

  C. case

  D. picture

  6. I enjoyed the play-it had a clever plot and very funny dialogues.

  A. long

  B. original

  C. humorous

  D. boring

  7. He demolished my arguments in minutes.

  A. disproved

  B. disputed

  C. accepted

  D. supported

  8. The two banks have announced plans to merge next year.

  A. combine

  B. sell

  C. close

  D. break

  9. Regular visits from a social worker can be of immense value to old people living alone.

  A. immediate

  B. great

  C. equal

  D. moderate

  10. I want to provide my boys with a decent education.

  A. private

  B. general

  C. good

  D. special

  11. Lower taxes would spur investment and help economic growth.

  A. attract

  B. encourage

  C. require

  D. spend

  12. He was kept in appalling conditions in prison.

  A. critical

  B. temble

  C. necessary

  D. normal

  13. I can't put up with my neighbor's noise any longer, it's driving me mad.

  A. measure

  B. generate

  C. tolerate

  D. reduce

  14. The project required ten years of diligent research.

  A. hardworking

  B. scientific

  C. basic

  D. social

  15. He was rather vague about the reasons why he never finished school.

  A. unclear

  B. bright

  C. bad

  D. general

  第二部分:阅读判断(第16-22题,每题1分,共7分)

  下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断:如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C。

  The Writing's on the Wall?

  Is it art or is it just vandalism (野蛮行为)? Well, it's still a crime, but graffiti (涂鸦) has changed since the days of spraying your name on a wall to mark your territory. Street art has become much more sophisticated since a 17-year-old called Demetrius started spraying his "tag" , TAKI 183, all over the New York underground in 1971, and hip - hop culture was born. Hip-hop is a mixture of art, music and dancing, poetry, language and fashion. It came from young inner-city

  people who fell left out by their richer classmates and who were desperate to express themselves in any way they could.

  An experiment to control the spread of graffiti in Rochdale, Creater Manchester, has been sosuccessful that plans have been made by local street artists for an international convention in June. "We're planning to get people together from different countries like France and Cermany for a week, " says Liam, one of the organizers. The scheme started in 2000, and has attracted people of all age groups and both sexes. " We all share a commen interest and get on really well with each other. " The first site to be chosen was a subway. " Before we began, people were afraid to use the subway. We had it cleaned up and now, with all the artists hanging out down there, people are using it again. People can relate to graffiti much more now. " By providing places to display their talents legally, there has been a fall in the amount of "tagging" on people's private property.

  Street artists Temper developed his drawing skills at a young age. In art classes at school he was really frustrated because the Art teacher didn't spend time with him. They thought he was already very good at art and so spend more time with other students. So, at 12 years old, Temper started painting with all these guys he'd hooked up with who were about 22 years old. He looked up to them and loved what they were doing on the streets of Wolvehampicn, England. "The whole hip -hop scene was built up of different things and I did a bit of everything. But it was always the graffiti I was best at. " he says.

  16. Demetrius was a teenager bom in New York.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  17. The graffiti scheme in Rochodale was for teenagers only.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  18. People did not like using the subway before an organized group of graffiti aritists came.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  19. Since the scheme started, new wall in the town were sprayed with graffiti.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  20. Most of the other graffiti artists in England were about ten years older than Temper.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  21. Temper, a street artist, is now head of graffiti club in England.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  22. Temper is involved in many different aspects of hip-hop culture.

  A. Right

  B. Wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  第三部分:概括大意与完成句子(第23-30题,每题1分,共8分)

  面的短文后有2项测试任务:

  (1)第23-26题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2-5段每段选择1个最佳标题;

  (2)第27-30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定1个最佳选项。

  Waste Not, Want Not

  I Bob and Clara Darlington, who own and run a farm in the North of England, have alwayslooked for new ways of making money out of the produce they grow. Their success began when they established a shop on their farm, so that people could come and buy fresh vegetables directly from them.

  2 The business was an immediate success, and soon scored top marks in a competition set up by the Farm Retail Association to find the best farm shop in the country. The Association's inspectors found the Darlingtons' shop offered excellent service and value for money as well as quality fruit and vegetable.

  3 Clara Darlington is a trained chef and, in addition to a range of home-grown foods and other local produce, she began offering a variety of prepared meals which she had made herself in the farmhouse kitchen. A small cafe alongside the farm shop was soon added, with everything that visitors could taste on the menu also being for sale in the shop.

  4 Clara admits that starting the business was expensive, and she has worked very hard, but maintains that if the product is good, the public recognize this and buy it. "I aim to offer the highest quality to our customers, whether they come in for a loaf of bread, or take a whole dinner-party menu. I take it as a compliment(恭维) if people take home one of my dishes to serve to their family and friends and get away with pretending they made it themselves. "

  5 So it was that the couple realized that they had a surplus of misshapen or damaged vegetables grown on the farm which were unsuitable for selling in the shop. Clara, not wishing to see them get thrown away, decided to turn them into soup.

  6 The soup met with the immediate approval of customers to the shop and Clara now produces ten different varieties. She spent much of the summer traveling up and down to London by rail, doing presentations of the soups. As a result, they are now served in first-class railway restaurant cars belonging to three companies as well as being stocked by a number of high-class London stores.

  23. Paragraph 2 __________.

  24. Paragraph 3 __________.

  25. Paragraph 4 __________.

  26. Paragraph 5 __________.

  A. Professional recognition is obtained

  B. Ensuring that nothing gets wasted

  C. A necessary alternative to farming

  D. Time well spent is rewarded

  E. Continuing investment is necessary alternative to farming in high stand9rds

  F. Professional skills are exploited

  27. Bob and Clara Darlington established a shop to _

  28. Apart from quality fruit and vegetables, the couple

  29. Instead of throwing the damaged vegetables away , the couple

  30. Clara spent much of the summer going to London to

  A. sell fresh vegetables

  B. turn them into soup

  C. sell as much as possible

  D. promote her soups

  E. fill a gap in the market

  F. offer a variety of prepared meals

  第四部分:阅读理解(第31-45题,每题3分,共45分)

  下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文内容,为每题确定1个最佳选项。

  第1篇

  The Iceman

  On a September day in 1991, two Germans were climbing the mountains between Austria and Italy. High up on a mountain pass, they found the body of a man lying on the ice. At that height(10,499 feet, or 3,200 meters), the ice is usually permanent, but 1991 had been an especially warm year. The mountain ice had melted more than usual and so the body had come to the surface.

  It was lying face downward. The skeleton(骨架) was in perfect condition, except for a wound in the head. There was still skin on the bones and the remains of some clothes. The hands were still holding the wooden handle of an ax and on the feet there were very simple leather and cloth boots. Nearby was a pair of gloves made of tree bark(树皮) and a holder for arrows.

  Who was this man? How and when had he died? Everybody had a different answer to these questions. Some people thought that it was from this century , perhaps the body of a soldier who died in World War I , since several soldiers had already been found in the area. A Swiss woman believed it might be her father, who had died in those mountains twenty years before and whose body had never been found. The scientists who rushed to look at the body thought it was probably much older, maybe even a thousand years old.

  With modern dating techniques, the scientists soon learned that the Iceman was about 5,300 years old. Bom in about 3300 B.C., he lived during the Bronze Age in Europe. At first scientists thought he was probably a hunter who had died from an accident in the high mountains. More recent evidence, however, tells a different story. A new kind of X - ray shows an arrowhead still stuck in his shoulder. It left only a tiny hole in his skin, but it caused internal damage and bleeding. He almost certainly died from this wound, and not from the wound on the back of his head. This means that he was probably in some kind of a battle. It may have been part of a larger war, or he may have been fighting bandits. He may even have been a bandit himself.

  By studying his clothes and tools, scientists have already learned a great deal from the Iceman about the times he lived in. we may never know the full story of how he died, but he has give us important clues to the history of those distant times.

  31. The body of the Iceman was found in the mountains mainly because __________.

  A. he was lying on the ice

  B. he was just on a mountain pass

  C. two Germans were climbing the mountains

  D. the melted ice made him visible

  32. What can be inferred from paragraph 2?

  A. The Iceman lived a poor life.

  B. The Iceman was struck dead from behind.

  C. The Iceman was killed while working.

  D. The Iceman could have died from the wound in the head.

  33. All the following are assumptions once made about the Ice man EXCEPT __________.

  A. he was a soldier in World War I

  B. he was a Swiss woman's long-lost father

  C. he came from Italy

  D. he was born about a thousand years ago

  34. The scientists made the deduction that the Iceman

  A. had got a wound on the back of his head

  B. had a tiny hole in his skin causing his death

  C. was hit in the shoulder by an arrowhead

  D. was probably in some kind of a battle

  35. The word "bandits" in paragraph 4 could be best replaced by __________.

  A. soldiers

  B. hunters

  C. robbers

  D. shooters

  第2篇

  The Best Way to Reduce Your Weight

  You hear this:"No wonder you are fat. All you ever do is eat. " You feel sad:"l skip my breakfast and supper. I run every morning and evening. What else can I do?" Basically you can do nothing. Your genes, not your life habits, determine your weight and your body constantly tries to maintain it.

  Albert Stunkard of the University of Pennsylvania found from experiments that, "80 percent of the children of two obese (肥胖的) parents become obese,as compared with no more than 14 percent of the offspring of two parents of normal weight. "

  How can obese people become normal or even thin through dieting? Well,dieting can be effective, but the health costs are tremendous. Jules Hirsch, a research physician at Rockefeller University, did a study of eight fat people. They were given a liquid formula providing 600 calories a day.After more than 10 weeks,the subjects lost 45ka on average. But after leaving the hospital,they all regained weight. The results were surprising: by metabolic (新陈代谢的) measurement, fat people who lost large amounts of weight seemed like they were starving. They had psychiatric problems. They dreamed of food or breaking their diet. They were anxious and depressed; some were suicidal. They hid food in their rooms. Researchers wam that it is possible that weight reduction doesn't result In normal weight,but in an abnormal state resembling that of starved non - obese people.

  Thin people, however, suffer from the opposite: They have to make a great effort to gain weight. Ethan Sims, of the University of Vermont, got prisoners to volunteer to gain weight. In four to six months,they ate as much as they could. They succeeded in increasing their weight by 20 t0 25 percent. But months after the study ended they were back to normal weight and stayed there.

  This did not mean that people are completely without "hope in controlling their weight. It means that those who tend to be fat will have to constantly battle their genetic inheritance if they want to significantly lower their weight. The findings also provide evidence for something scientists thought was true - each person has a comfortable weight range. The range might be as much as 9kg. Someone might weigh 60-69kg without too much effort. But going above or below the natural weight range is difficult. The body resists by feeling hungry or full and changing the metabolism to pusb the weight back to the range it seeks.

  36. The first paragraph tells us that our weight is determinede by __________.

  A. Our eating habit

  B. Our life style

  C. Our work habit

  D. Our genes

  37. In Jules Hirsch's study, the subjects __________.

  A. showed no health problem

  B. gained weight rapidly

  C. were all very short

  D. lived only on liquid food

  38. After leaving the hospital, the eight fat people __________.

  A. attempted suicide

  B. were back to normal weight

  C. went mad

  D. followed the advice of Hirsch's

  39. In Ethan Sims study, the subjects were asked to__________.

  A. stay in prison

  B. eat as much as they could

  C. battle their genetic inheritance

  D. lower their weight

  40. Which of the following statements is true?

  A. Each person wants to eat to his heart's content.

  B. Each. person has a weight range of 9kg.

  C. Each person has a natural weight range.

  D. Each person wants to control his weight.

  第3篇

  Food for Learning

  In Eritrea, a small country in northeast Africa, approximately 80 percent of the population is illiterate. That percentage is even higher in woman. As in many developing countries, many Eritreans have traditional ideas about the role of women. They believe that women should stay home and take care of the family and should not get an education or look for a job.

  These beliefs are one of the factors that prevent Eritriea and other developing countries from improving their economic situation. Experience in many developing countnes has shown that educated women have fewer children and have more opportunities for improving their lives and the lives of their families. In Eritrea, in fact, there is great need for improvement. It is one of the poorest countries in the world. For many Eritrean families, getting enough food is a daily problem.

  To deal with these problems, the Eritrean government together with the World Food Program,has a new program that offers food as a reward for leaming. In primary schools, all the children receive food packages to take home to their families. However, with the new program, the girls receive more food than the boys. This way, parents are encouraged to send their daughter to school rather than keeping them at home.

  Another govemment program that aims to educate women is Food for Training. Managed by the National Union of Eritrean Women, this program offer food rewards (also from World Food Organiza tion) to women and elder girls who are willing to join the program. Because of the war with Ethiopia, many women are bringing up their families on their own. They often live in refugee camps, with no land of their own and no way to earn money. Most of these women are illiterate and have no skills to find a job. They spend most of their day looking for food and preparing it for their families.

  The Food for Training program helps the tennagers and women change their lives. If they agree to join the program, they receive a large package of food each month. In return, the women are required to attend free literate classes for two hours every day. When Food for Training classes in two regions of Eritrea, 5000 girls and women joined in the first two months. It is especially popular with teenage girls, aged fourteen to sixteen, who have never had a chance to go to school before.

  The organizers of Food for Traing also plans to offer other kinds of courses for women, using the same system of food rewards. In these courses, they will teach women job skills and crafts such as basket weaving. These women will not only learn to read and write. They will become aware of what is going on in their country.

  41. According to the passage, traditional ideas about women __________.

  A. are rejected by younger generation

  B. help improve the economy

  C. hinder economic development '

  D. have little impact on economic development

  42. The Eritrean govemment is offering extra food to girls in school in order to __________.

  A. encourage to keep girls at home

  B. change traditional attitudes towards women

  C. help girls feed their families

  D. creat more jobs for Eritrean teachers

  43. With the Food for Learning program, women get a large package of food as long as__________.

  A. they attend free literacy classes every day

  B. they have no land of their own

  C. they bring up their families on their own

  D. they live in refugee camps

  44. The new literacy programs are an example of __________.

  A. the work of 5,000 women and teenage girls

  B. the problems with the aid of international organizations

  C. local and international organizations working together

  D. the Eritrean govemment working to keep its power

  45. According to the passage, Food for Training will__________.

  A. help women better their lives

  B. encourage women to leave their country

  C. teach women about intemational aid

  D. allow women to spend more time at home

  第五部分:补全短文(第46-50题,每题2分,共10分)

  下面的短文有5处空白,短文后有6个句子,其中5句取自短文,请按照短文内容将其分别放回原有位置,以恢复文章原貌。

  I Know Just How You Feel

  Do you feel sad? Happy? Angry? You may think that the way you show these emotions is unique. Well, think again. Even the expression of the most personal feelings can be classified, according to Mind Readingame, a DVD displaying every possible human emotion. It demonstrates 412 distinct ways in which we feel the first visual distionary of the human heart.

  Attempts to classify expressions began in the mid-1800s, when Darwin divided the emtions into six types-anger, fear, sadness, disgust, surprise and enjoyment. _________(46) Every other feeling was thought to derive from Darwin's small group. More complex expressions of emotions were probably learned and therefore more specific to each culture. But now it is believed that many more facial expressions are shared worldwide. _________(47) The Mind Reading DVD is a systematic visual record of these expressions.

  The project was conceived by a Cambridge professor as an aid for people with autism (孤独症), who have difficulty both reading and expressing emotions. But it quickly became apparent that it had broader uses. Actors and teachers, for example, need to understand a wide range of expressions. The professor and his research team first had to define an "emotion" _________(48) Using this definition, 1,512 emotion terms were identified and discussed. This list was eventually reduced to 412, from"afraid" to "wanting".

  Once these emotions were defined and classified, a DVD seemed the clearest and most efficient way to display them. In Mind Reading, each expression is acted out by six different actors in three seconds. _________(49) The explanation for this is simple: we may find it difficult to describe emotions using words, but we instantly recognise one when we see it on someone's face. " It was really clear when the actors had got it right," says Cathy Collis, who directed the DVD." Although they were given some direstion," says Ms Collis, " the actors were not told which facial muscles they should move. " _________(50) For example, when someone feel contempt, you can't say for certain that their eyebrows always go down.

  Someone who has tried to establish such rules is the American, Professor Paul Ekman, who has built a database of how the face moves for every emotion. The face can make 43 distinct muscle movements called " action units". These can be combined into more than 10, 000 visible facial shapes. Ekmen has written out a pattern of facial muscular movements to represent each emotion.

  A. He said that this expression of feeling is universal and recognizable by anyone from any culture .

  B. Any other method of showing the 412 emotions whould have been far less effective.

  C. Research has also been done to find out which area of brain read the emotional expressions.

  D. These particular muscles are difficult to control, and few people can do it.

  E. They decided that it was a mental state that could be preceded by "I feel" "he looks" or"she sounds".

  F. We thought of trying to describe each emotion, but it whould have been almost impossible to make clear rules of this.

  第六部分:完形填空(第51-65题,每题1分,共15分)

  下面的短文有15处空白,请根据短文内容为每处空白确定1个最佳选择。

  Racial Prejudice

  In some countries where racial prejucide is acute, violence has been taken for granted as a means of solving differences; and this is not even questioned. There are countries _________(51) the white man imposes his rude by brute (粗暴) force; there are countries where the black man protests by _(52) fire to cities and by looting and pillaging(抢夺). Important people on both sides, who would in other respects appear to be reasonable men, get up and calmly argue in_________(53) of violence as if it were a legitimate (合法的) solution, _________(54) any other. What is really frightening, what really _________(55) you with despair, is the realization that when it comes to the crunch(关键时刻), we have made no actual _________(56) at all. We may wear collars and ties instead of war-paint, but our insticts remain basically unchanged. The whole of the recorded _________(57) of the human race, that tedious documentation of violence, has taught us absolutely nothing. We have still not learnt that_________(58) never solves a problem but makes it more acute. The sheer horror, the bloodshed and the suffering _________(59) nothing. No solution ever comes to _________(60) the moming after when we dismally(阴郁地) contemplate the smoking ruins and wonder what hit us.

  The truly reasonable men who _________(61) where the solutions lie are finding it harder and harder to get a hearing. They are despised, mistrusted and even persecuted _________(62) their own kind because they advocate such apparently outrageous things as low enforcement. If half the energy that goes into _________(63) acts were put to good use, if our efforts were directed at_________(64) up the slums and ghettos (贫民窟), at improving living-standards and providing education and employment for all, we would not have gone a long way to _________(65) at a solution.

  51. A. where B. what C. why D. when

  52. A. fighting B. returning C. catching D. setting

  53. A. spite B. memory C. need D. favor

  54. A. to B. through C. like D. as

  55. A. fills B. puts C. forces D. sets

  56. A. progress B. decision C. point D. sense

  57. A. system B. history C. range D. business

  58. A. argument B. violence C. talk D. research

  59. A. deal B. have C. mean D. want

  60. A. light B. life C. end D. mind

  61. A. suggest B. demand C. consider D. know

  62. A. by B. for C. with D. of

  63. A. final B. lawful C. violent D. symbolic

  64. A. looking B. getting C. taking D. cleaning

  65. A. meeting B. laughing C. startling D. arriving

2010年全国职称英语综合类(A级)考试参考答案

  第一部分:词汇选项

  1. B[解析]本句意思:她的父亲是一位举止优雅的安静的人。polite:有礼貌的,文雅的,例如:He is always polite to people.他总是对人很有礼貌。similar:相似的,类似的,例如:The project in Africa has similar goals.在非洲的计划有类似的目的。usual:通常的,如:The child went to school as usual.这孩子像往常一样上学去了。Bad:糟糕的,坏的,例如:a bad situation糟糕的情况。

  2. D[解析]本句意思:帕特丽夏不满地瞪着其他姑娘。resentment:愤恨;例如:She shows no resentment to anyone.她不怨恨任何人。anger:愤怒,最符合题意。如:The young man just cannot control his anger.那个年轻人无法控制自己的愤怒。doubt:怀疑。如:There is no doubt our team will win the game.毫无疑问我们队会赢得比赛。

  3. A[解析]本句意思:你的狗每天需要至少20分钟充沛的运动。vigorous:精力充沛的;energentic和它意思相同,表示有活力的,精力充沛的,例如:He is an energetic man. Everyday he works until midnight.他是个精力旺盛的人,每天都工作到半夜。physical:体力的,身体的,例如:to do physical exercise锻炼身体。regular:定期的,正式的,例如:He has no regular work.他没有正式的工作。free:自由的。

  4. B[解析]本句意思:我们的安排被弄得一团糟。turmoil:混乱,骚动;confusion:混乱,困惑,例如:The conference ended in confusion.会议在混乱中结束。doubt:怀疑,疑惑,例如:I doubt his competence to do the work.我怀疑他是否有能力做那件工作。relief:减除,救济,例如:refief fund for the earthquake in Yushu district玉树地区的地震救济金。

  5. B [解析]本句意思:陡峭的楼梯对于老年人特别危险。hazard和danger意思相同,表示危险的;evidence:证据,迹象,例如:There is no evidence that there will be an earthquake there.没有迹象表明那个地区会发生地震。case:情况,如:Is that the case?是这样的情况吗?picture:图片,图画。例如:How do you like his picture?你喜欢他的图画吗?

  6. C[解析]本句意思:我很喜欢那个游戏--它有巧妙的情节和有趣的对话。original:原始的,原创的,例如:He can read Shakespeare in the original.他能读莎士比亚作品的原文。boring:乏味的,无聊的;humorous:幽默的,滑稽的,例如:lndeed he has a solemn face,but he is very humorous at heart.他的确有一副严厉的脸孔,但内心却很富幽默感。 外#语教育网编辑整理

  7. A [解析]本句意思:他在几分钟内就驳倒了我的观点。demolish:推翻,驳倒;dis-rove:反驳,例如:lt is nearly impossible to disprove a rumor.要辟谣几乎是不可能的。dispute:辩论,怀疑,例如:We disputed with each other on various issues.我们为各种问题互相争论。 support:支持,扶持,如:1 will always support you whatever you do.不论你做什么,我都会支持你。

  8. A [解析]本句意思:两家银行已宣布了在明年合并的计划。merge:合并,兼并;combine:使结合,使联合,和merge意思接近,例如:to combine theory with practice理论联系实际;sell:卖,出售;close:停止,关闭,例如:to close an account关闭一个(银行)账户。break:打破,折断,例如:The old man broke a tooth on a bone.这老人咬骨头把一颗牙折断了。

  9. B[解析]本句意思:社会工作者的定期访问对独居老人很有价值。lmmense:巨大的、较好的;immediate:立即的,直接的,例如:He demanded immediate payment.他要求立即付款。great:巨大的,符合题意,例如:He achieved great success in his career.他的事业取得了巨大的成功。equal:平等的,用法为be equal to;moderate:适度的,中等的,例如:lt is a large house.but thegarden is of moderate size.那是一栋大房子,可是花园却只有一般的大小。

  10. C[解析]本句意思:我想给我的孩子们提供良好的教育。decent:相当好的,体面的;更多用法有:decent income可观的收入,decent meal像样的饭,decent cloth体面的服装;good和它意思相同。private:私人的,隐私的,例如:Fans are always curious about the singer's private life。歌迷总对歌星的私人生活感兴趣。general.普遍的,例如:the general public普通大众。special:特别的,例如:This is a special occasion.这是一个特殊的场合。

  11. B[解析]本句意思:低税收将刺激投资,帮助经济增长。spur:鞭策,激励;attract:吸引,例如:His film has attraced a large audiences.他的电影吸引了很多的观众。encourage和spur意思相同,是鼓舞、鼓励的意思,例如:New measures have been taken to encourage consumption in China.申国采取了新的举措来刺激消费。require:要求,如:This is the minimum quantity we require.这是我们所要求的最小数量。spend:花费,如:She spent the whole month to prepare for the examination.她用一个月的时间准备考试。

  12. B [解析]本句意思:他被关押在条件恶劣的监狱里。appalling:可怕的,令人震惊的;critical:危险的,爱挑剔的,例如:He is very critical about food.他对食物特别挑剔。terrible:可怕的;necessary:必要的,必须的,例如:We still lack the necessary information.我们仍缺少必要的信息。normal:正常的,例如:lt is normal to feel lonelv sometimes.偶尔会觉得寂寞是很正常的。

  13. C[解析]本句意思:我不能忍受邻居的噪音,那快让我疯了。put up with:忍受,和tolerate意思相同,例如:The school cannot tolerate cheating on exams.学校无法容忍考试作弊现象。measure:测量,估计,例如:We cannot measure a man by his failures.我们不能以失败来衡量一个人。reduce:减少,缩小,例如:They have to reduce expenses this year.他们今年必须削减开支。

  14. A[解析]本句意思:这个项目需要10年的刻苦钻研。hardworking:刻苦的,努力的,例如:His success depend on his hardworking and patience.他的成功全靠他的辛勤与耐心。scientific:科学的,例如:scientific development科学发展;basic:基本的,基础的,例如:My boss can speak some basic English.我的老板能说一些基础英语。social:社会的,例如:good social order良好的社会秩序。

  15. A[解析]本句意思:他对自己没有完成学业的原因相当糊涂。vague:含糊的,不明确的,它和unclear意思相同,例如:It was still unclear what was the cause of the aircrash.那起空难的原因还不清楚。bright:聪明的,光明的,例如:We enjoyed the bright sunshine.我们享受明媚的阳光。general:-般的,大体的,例如:the general trend of development发展的大趋势。bad:糟糕的,坏的,例如:You have to correct your bad habits radically.你必须彻底地改正自己的坏习惯。

  第二部分:阅读判断

  16.C [解析]文章的第一段提到"_since a 17 - year - old called Demetrius started spraying his' tag',TAKI 183,all over the New York underground_",由此可以得知他是一名青少年,但是没有证据显示他来自于纽约,因此,该判断在文中没有提到。

  17.B [解析]第二段中间一句"The scheme started in 2000,and has attracted people of all age groups and both sexes."可以看出,这一计划是针对所有年龄的人们,而不只是青少年,所以该判断错误。

  18.C[解析]本题给出的信息文中没有提及。作者在第二段虽然提到"Before we began,people were afraid to use the subway."在有组织的涂鸦艺术家们集中在地铁涂鸦之前,人们害怕搭乘地铁,但是文中没有说到人们是否喜欢乘坐地铁。

  19.B[解析]文中第二段最后一句提到自从该计划实施以来,由于给艺术家们提供了展示他们作品的场所,在居民的私人财产上涂鸦的现象有所下降。很显然,不可能有新的墙壁被乱涂乱画。

  20.A [解析]本题给出的信息正确。从第三段第四句"at 12 years old,Temper started painting with all these guys he'd hooked up with who were about 22 years old."可知泰普12岁时和其他艺术家一起开始绘画,他们大约比他大十岁。

  21.B [解析]文中最后一段提到作为一名涂鸦艺术家,泰普敬佩并喜欢上了英国Wolvehampicn的艺术家们。并没有说他现在是涂鸦俱乐部的负责人。

  22.A [解析]文中最后一段提到"The whole hip - hop scene was built up of different things and I did a bit of everything."他参与了有关嘻哈(文化)的各种活动,因此,该判断正确。

  参考译文

  墙上的文字

  它是艺术还是破坏?是的,它仍然是一种犯罪行为,然而,自人们把自己的名字喷涂在墙壁上以标记自己的领地以来,涂鸦已经发生了变化。1971年,17岁的年轻人狄米特律斯开始在纽约地铁喷涂他的"标签"TAKI 183,街头艺术从此变得更加复杂,嘻哈文化由此应运而生。嘻哈音乐是一种音乐、舞蹈、诗歌、语言和时尚混合的艺术。它诞生于年轻的城市青年人中,他们感受到富裕同学的冷落,想要不顾一切地以任何可以使用的任何方式表达自己的想法。

  大曼彻斯特地区的罗切戴尔的一项旨在控制涂鸦传播的实验相当成功,当地的街头艺术家制定了计划,打算在六月份举办一次国际会议。"我们打算让不同的国家如的法国和德国的艺术家们在此相聚一个星期,"主办人之一莱姆建议。这项计划开始于2000年,吸引了所有年龄和性别的人。"我们有着共同的兴趣,彼此相处的十分融洽。"选择涂鸦的第一个地点是一处地铁。"在我们开始这一计划之前,人们害怕使用地铁。我们把它清理干净,现在,所有的艺术家经常聚集到那里,人们开始搭乘地铁,他们能够欣赏涂鸦了。"提供场所让人们来展示自己的才华,在居民的私人财产上喷涂"标签"(涂鸦)的现象有所下降。

  街头艺术家泰很小就开始训练自己的绘画能力。在学校的艺术课程中他非常沮丧,因为艺术老师没有时间陪他训练,他们认为他在艺术方面很擅长了,因此花更多的时间指导其他同学。所以,在12岁时,泰普开始和那些22岁左右的家伙们开始一起绘画。他敬佩并喜欢上了他们在英国的Wolvehampion大街上所作的一切。他说:"整个嘻哈的背景由不同的东西组成。我在每件事上都做了一点点尝试,但是,我还是最擅长于涂鸦。"

  第三部分:概括大意与完成句子

  23.C [解析]该段讲到他们因为参加一场比赛,从而使出售农产品成为农场的另一个主业。所以题目应该是C--替代耕种的另外一种方法。

  24.A[解析]克拉拉·达灵顿除了出售自家农场种的食物和本地出产的农产品外,还开设了一家小咖啡馆顺便出售自己的农产品,农场的经营越来越专业,并得到行业的认可。

  25.E [解析]选择高标准、持续的投资是非常必要的。农场为顾客提供最优质的农产品。

  26.B [解析]夫妇俩把那些不适合在商店出售的畸形的或是被弄坏的剩余蔬菜做成蔬菜汤,因此该段题目应该是确保没有浪费。

  27.A[解析]文章第一段提到他们在农场建了一个商店,"people could come and buy fresh vegetables directly from them."他们可以直接购买新鲜蔬菜了。

  28.F [解析]第二段的第一句"_in addition to a range of home - grown foods and other local produce,she began offering a variety of prepared meals"提供了答案。

  29.B [解析]第三段第一句"...not wishing to see them get thrown away,decided to turn them into soup."提供了答案。

  30.C [解析]最后一段第二句说到她夏天的大部分时间乘坐火车沿着伦敦来回旅行,以展示自己的蔬菜汤,所以应该选C,销售尽量多的产品。

  参考译文

  不浪费,自丰足

  鲍勃和克拉拉·达灵顿在英格兰的北部拥有并经营着一家农场,他们总是寻找新方法以便从种植的农产品上赚钱。当他们在自家农场上建立了一家商店后,他们的成功接踵而至,这样人们能直接到他们那里买到新鲜的蔬菜。

  生意很快就取得了成功,很快地,他们的商店在一场农场零售协会举办的比赛中获得最高分,成为全英格兰最好的农场商店。协会的检查员发现达灵顿的商店提供卓越的服务和质优价廉的水果和蔬菜。

  克拉拉·达灵顿也是一位训练有素的厨师,除了自家农场种的食物和本地出产的农产品外,她开始在农家厨房提供各式各样自己烹调的食物。不久,她在农场的商店旁又开了一家小咖啡馆,游客能够品尝到菜单中列出的所有菜肴。

  克拉拉承认创业是昂贵的,并且她一直很努力。但是,如果新产品好,公众就会意识到这一点并购买它。"不管顾客是来买一片面包,或者要整桌的宴会菜,我的目标都是为他们提供最优质的产品。如果人们把我做的一个菜品带回家,假装是他们自己做的,让家人或是朋友品尝,我会把这视为对自己的褒奖。"

  所以,这对夫妇意识到农场上那些畸形的或是被弄坏的剩余蔬菜不适合在商店出售。克拉拉不愿意看到它们被浪费掉,于是决定把它们做成汤。

  这种汤很快受到客户的青睐。克拉拉现在提供十个不同种类的汤。她夏天的大部分时间都在乘坐火车沿着伦敦来回旅行,以展示自己做的蔬菜汤。结果,现在这些汤上了三家公司旗下的一流铁路餐厅的餐桌,一些伦敦高级商店也有它的存货。

  第四部分:阅读理解

  第1篇

  31.D[解析]本题是细节考查题。冰人尸体被发现的原因在文章的第一段提到"The mountain ice had melted more than usual and so the body had come to the surface."由止匕知道是融化的冰将他暴露了出来,因此D正确。

  32..D[解析]原题是从第二段可以做出什么样的推断?本段开头提到"It was lying face downward. The skeleton(骨架)was in perfect condition,except for a wound in the head."(它面朝下,除了头部有伤外,骨架状况很好),就此推断,冰人可能死于头部伤口,因此答案是D。

  33.C[解析]细节考查题。原题是下列哪项不是人们对冰人的猜测。原文在第三段。选项A"他是一战时期的士兵",B"他是一位瑞士妇女失踪多年的父亲"和选项D"他大约在一千年前出生"在文中可以找到,而选项C"他来自意大利"在文章中没有出现。采用排除法得出答案C。

  34.D [解析]本题是细节考查题。原题是科学家对冰人的推论是什么。原文在第四段。选项A"头后部有伤口"是事实而非推论;选项B"皮肤上的小孔导致他的死亡"不符合事实;选项C"他的肩膀被箭头刺伤"是事实而非推论;选项D"有可能参与过战斗"是推论;因此选D。

  35.C[解析]本题是词汇考察题。原题是第四段中"bandits"是什么意思?选项A"战士";选项B"猎人";选项C"强盗";选项D"射击手"。该词意思为"强盗",因此选C。

  参考译文

  冰人

  1991年9月的一天,两位德国人正在攀登奥地利和意大利之间的山脉。在一个山口,他们发现了一具躺在冰上的尸体。在这样的高度(10499英尺或3200米),冰通常是常年不化的。但是1991年是特别暖的一年,山上的冰比以前消融得迅速,所以尸体才显露出来。

  他面朝下,除了头部有伤外,骨架完整。骨头上依然有皮肤和残余的衣物。尸体的双手仍然握着斧头的木柄,双脚穿着简单的皮革和布料做的靴子,他附近有一双树皮做的手套和一个箭筒。

  他是谁?在什么时候、怎样死去的?每个人的解释不同。有人认为他就是本世纪的人,有可能是一战时期阵亡的士兵,因为在这附近已经有士兵被发现了。一位瑞士妇女相信他是二十年前在这些山脉间去世的父亲,只是他的遗体一直没有被找到。赶去查看的科学家认为这一具尸体的年代可能更久远,甚至有一千年了。

  借助现代科技,科学家们很快获悉这一冰人已有差不多5300年了。他大约出生在公元前3300年,生活在欧洲的青铜器时代。起初,科学家们认为他有可能是在高山间打猎时因为事故而身亡。然而最近的一些证据显示出不同。新型的X光扫描表明,他的肩膀上还有一个箭头,皮肤上只有一个小孔,但却导致内部损伤和失血。几乎可以肯定他死于这个箭伤,而不是脑后的伤口。这说明他有可能参与过战争。有可能是大型战争的一部分或者曾经和强盗博斗过,甚至他本人就可能是强盗。

  通过研究他的衣服和工具,科学家们已经了解了有关冰人所生活的时代的很多内容。我们有可能永远无法知道他死亡的完整真相,但是他给我们提供了那个远古时代的重要线索。

  第2篇

  36.D [解析]第一段的后面一句话提到"Your genes,not your life habits,determine your weight…"由此可知是你的基因而非生活习惯决定你的体重。

  37.D[解析]第三段中说到研究人员给参加实验的八位胖子每天提供只含600卡路里的流质食物。

  38.B [解析]通过第三段"But after leaving the hospital,they all regained weight."可以看出他们的体重最终又恢复到原来的状态,所以选B。

  39.B [解析]文章第四段讲研究人员如何让瘦人增加体重。Ethan Sims从犯人中招募志愿者,让他们增加体重的办法就是让他们吃尽可能多的食物。

  40.C [解析]文章最后一段,科学家们的发现证明了他们认为是正确的想法,即"each person has a comfortable weight range"(体重幅度),这个幅度可能是9公斤,但并非每个人都是同样的幅度,所以可以否定干扰项B。

  参考译文

  减肥的最佳途径

  "看你,就知道吃,难怪你这么胖。"当你听到这样的话时,你会感到万分沮丧,心想:"我不吃早餐也不吃晚饭,而且早晚跑步。我还能怎么办呢?"对此,你基本上无能为力。因为是你的基因而不是你的生活习惯决定了你的体重,而且你的身体其实一直在努力维持着某个体重。

  宾夕法尼亚大学的Albert Stunkard从实验中发现并指出:"如果父母肥胖,那他们的孩子有80%也将肥胖,相比之下,如果父母的体重正常,他们的子女体重超标的可能性不超过14%。"

  那么,肥胖者如何才能通过节食使体重恢复正常甚至变瘦呢?自然,节食是有效的,但是,为此付出的健康代价却是巨大的。洛克菲勒大学的医学研究员Jules Hirsch曾经做过一项针对8名肥胖者的实验。给予他们一种流食配方,每天给他们提供600卡的能量。十多周后,被调查对象平均减重45公斤。但是在他们离开医院以后,他们的体重又回升了。实验结果令人吃惊:通过干预身体的新陈代谢,减重的肥胖者过着挨饿一般的生活。他们的精神状态不佳,梦想着食物或打破这种饮食规定。他们精神紧张、压抑,有些人甚至有自杀倾向。他们在自己房间里收藏食物。研究人员警告说,体重的减轻有可能不会带来正常的体重,它的结果有可能类似于一个正常体重者挨饿之后的非正常身体状况。

  体重过轻的人则遭受着相反的痛苦:他们得努力增加体重。Vermont大学的Ethan Sims曾经在犯人中选取志愿者做增加体重的实验。在4到6个月里,他们吃下尽可能多的食物。结果,他们的体重都增加了20%到25%。但是实验结束数月之后,他们的体重又回到了正常水平,并且基本保持稳定。

  这并不意味着人们对控制体重毫无办法。如果那些天生肥胖的人想减肥,那么他们将要不懈地与自己的基因做斗争。同时,这些实验结果为科学家认可的某个真理提供了佐证--每个人都有一个适合的体重范围,这个范围大概是9公斤。有些人可能在顺其自然的条件下就保持60到69公斤的体重,但是减轻或者增加体重却是比较困难的。身体会通过饥饿或者饱胀的感觉,并通过调节新陈代谢促使体重回到那个范围。

  第3篇

  41.D[解析]问题是对妇女的传统观念是什么。从文章第一段最后一句我们知道,传统观念中妇女的作用仅限于照顾家庭,可见,她们对经济发展的影响微乎其微,所以D正确。

  42.B[解析]问题是厄立特里亚政府给到学校上学的女孩提供更多的食物目的何在?第三段中间说到"…the girls receive more food than the boys. This way,parents are encouraged to send their daughter to school rather than keeping them at home…"显然,政府此举在于改变对妇女的传统观念。

  43.A [解析]问题是在什么情况下妇女可以得到一大包食物。第五段第三句"In retum,the women are required to attend free literate classes."即只要她们参加免费的识字课就可以领到食物,所以选A。

  44.C [解析]问题是新扫盲项目是什么的范例,第三段第一句"To deal with thes prob-lems, the Eritrean govemment together with the World Food Program, has a new program that offers food as a reward for leaming."可见,这一项目是当地政府和国际组织合作的结果。因此,选项C正确。

  45.A[解析]问题是食物换学习项目的结果是什么。文中第五段的第一句"The Food for Training program helps the tennagers and women change their lives."显然,该项目期望改善妇女的生活条件。

  参考译文

  学习换食品

  在东北非洲的一个小国厄立特里亚,大约80%的的人口是文盲。妇女中文盲的比例更高。像很多发展中国家一样,许多厄立特里亚人对妇女的角色抱有传统的观点,他们认为妇女应该呆在家里照顾家庭,不应该接受教育或者外出找工作。

  这些观念是阻止厄立特里亚及其他发展中国家改善经济条件的因素之一。许多发展中国家的经验表明,受过良好教育的妇女会少生孩子,有更多的机会来改善她们和家人的生活。事实上,在厄立特里亚,还有很多地方有待改进。厄立特里亚是世界上最贫穷的国家之一。对于许多厄立特里亚人来说,填饱肚子是他们日常面临的问题。

  为了解决这些问题,厄立特里亚政府同世界粮食计划署一起实施一个新的项目,提供食品作为学习的奖励。在小学,所有的孩子都会领到一包食品带回家。随着新项目的实施,女孩比男孩得到更多的食物。用这种方式鼓励父母送他们的女儿去上学,而不是让她们待在家里做家务活。

  政府的另一个旨在为妇女提供教育的项目是学习换食品计划,它由厄立特里亚全国妇女联合会管理,该项目为那些愿意加入培训的妇女和年龄稍大的姑娘们提供食物奖励(也从世界粮食组织获得)。由于和埃塞俄比亚的战争,很多女人支撑着她们的家庭。她们常常住在难民营里,没有自己的土地,没有办法赚钱。这些女性大多数都是文盲,没有一技之长去找一份工作。她们大部分的时间用来寻找食物和为家人做饭。

  学习换食品计划可以帮助青少年和女性改变自己的生活。如果她们同意加入这个项目,她们每月会领到一大包食物。作为交换,妇女被要求参加每天两小时的免费识字课。学习换食物计划在厄立特里亚的两个地区实施的前两个月,有5000名女性参加了培训。这个项目尤其受到14到16岁女孩子的欢迎,她们之前从来没有机会上学。

  学习换食物计划还打算用同样的食物奖励的方式,为女性提供其他类型的课程。在这些课程中,他们会教妇女一些工作技能和手工艺如编篮子等。这些妇女不仅可以学习读和写,她们还会了解国家正在发生的事情。

  第五部分:补全短文

  46.A [解析]"He said that this expression of feeling is universal and recognizable by anyone from any culture."他说这种感情的表达普遍存在,可以在任何人和任何文化中找到。上一句列举了六种表情,而this正是指以上的感情的表达。

  47.C [解析]"Research has also been done to find out which area of brain read the emotional expressions."人们做了研究以期发现大脑的哪个区域读取表情。该题考察上下文之间的意义关系。

  48.F [解析]"We thought of trying to describe each emotion, but it whould have been almost impossible to make clear rules of this."我们试图描述每种情感,但要搞清楚其中的规律几乎是不可能的,这就是为什么教授要进行不同表情的研究和界定。

  49.B [解析]"Any other method of showing the 412 emotions whould have been far less effective."要展示412种表情,其他任何的方法远没有它有效。文章接下来给出了理由。

  50.D [解析]"These particular muscles are difficult to control, and few people can do it."这些特殊的肌肉很难控制,少数人才能做到这一点。该句前面讲到面部肌肉的控制,因此,选D。

  参考译文

  我懂你的心

  你觉得难过?快乐吗?生气吗?你可能认为你表达这些情感的方式是独一无二的。哦,再想想吧。头脑阅读仪,是一种可以显示人类每一种可能的情绪的DVD,即使是最为私密的个人感情也可进行分类。这种仪器可以准确地展示我们412种不同的表情,它是第一部可以感受人类内心活动的可视字典。

  人们在十九世纪中期开始尝试对表情进行分类,那时达尔文把人的表情划分为六种类型--愤怒、恐惧、悲伤、厌恶、惊喜和快乐。他表示这种感情的表达普遍存在,可以在任何人和任何文化中找到。其他不同的感觉被议为可以归于达尔文的分类。更复杂的情感表达或许是后天学习的,因此在不同的文化中具有自己的特色。但是现在看来,更多的面部表情是人类共享的。人们做了研究以期发现由大脑的哪个区域读取表情。头脑阅读DVD是一种系统的视觉表情的记录仪。

  该项目由剑桥大学的教授构想,它是对自闭症患者,即在阅读和表达情绪方面有困难的人的一种辅助治疗。但是很显然不久它有了更为广泛的用途。比如,演员和老师们需要了解大量不同的表情。这位教授和他的研究小组先得定义一个"表情",因为我们试图想要描述每种情感,但要搞清楚其中的规律几乎是不可能的。用这种界定方式,1512种情感被进行了界定和讨论。最终,这个列表被减少到从"害怕"到"希望"共412种表情。

  一旦这些情绪被定义和归类,DVD似乎是最为清晰、最快捷的展示它们的方式。在头脑阅读仪中,每种表情都由6个不同的演员在三秒内表演出来。要展示412种表情,其他任何方法远没有它有效。原因很简单:我们发现很难用语言来形容感情,但是当它们在某人的脸部出现时我们会立刻辨认出来。"很明显,演员的表演是到位的,"DVD的导演凯西科利说到。"虽然给了他们一些指示,但并没有告诉演员他们应该动用面部的哪快肌肉。"科利斯女士补充说。这些特殊的肌肉难以控制,只有少数人才能做到这一点。例如,当有人感到不屑一顾时,你不能确定他们的眉毛总是向下撇。

  美国人保罗·埃克曼教授试图建立这样的规则,他创建了一个数据库,描述表达每个情感时面部的变化。人的脸部可以做出43种截然不同的叫做"行动单位"的肌肉运动。这些能被组合成超过10000种可见的面部形态。埃克曼教授已经编写出面部肌肉的运动模式来代表每个情感。

  第六部分:完形填空

  51.A[解析]名词country后面可以用in which表示地点,引导限定性定语从句,但不能只用which,如果要用它,应在从句的后面出现in,例如:This is the place in which he grew up/ which he grew up in. where和in which意思相同,其他选项意思不对,因此选A。

  52.D [解析]set fire to是固定短语,意思为点火;catch fire:着火,例如:Dry catches fire easily.干草容易着火,用在文中意思不对。其他选项搭配错误,因此正确答案是D。

  53.D[解析]in favor of是固定搭配,意思:赞同。从上下文判断,只有D最合适,表示"赞成暴力"。

  54.C [解析]any other前面需要一个介词,根据前面的as if从句,可以判断like(像……一样)符合题意。through:通过;as:作为。

  55.A[解析】fill sb. with sth.是固定搭配,意思是"使某人充满……"如:The room was filled with students.房子里坐满了学生。force sb. into doing sth.强迫某人做某事。

  56.A[解析]make和progress搭配表示"取得进步、进展";用在此处意思正确。make decision:做决定;make sense:合理的,明智的,例如:It makes sense to save money while you can.趁着自己能办到时积攒些钱是明智的。

  57.B[解析]从上下文判断,此处应该是指人类有记录以来的历史,因此选B。range:范围,例如:an area with a wide range of temperature温度变化幅度很多的地区。system:系统。

  58.B [解析]从前面一句看出,violence符合题意,即我们始终认识到暴力从来就没有解决过任何问题,却只会使问题更加尖锐。argument:争论;research:研究。

  59.C[解析]deal和with搭配,是处理、对待的意思。want:想要;根据上下文C意思合适,mean nothing:毫无意义。

  60.A [解析]整句意思是到早晨还是没有任何解决办法。come to light:找到,出现;come to life:使苏醒过来;使有活力;come to an end:结束;come to decision:得出结论,所以正确答案是A。

  61.D[解析]空格后紧跟一个where引导的宾语从句,四个选项中know意思符合题意,即知道解决问题的方法,其他几个不符合题意。suggest sb.to do sth.:建议;consider as:认为,视为;demand:要求。

  62.A[解析]前面的are despised,mistrusted and even persecuted属被动语态,所以后面应该用by引出施加动作的主体,所以A正确。

  63.C[解析]lawful:合法的;symboilic:象征性的,例如:The flag is symbolic of the fignting of modern womanhood.这面旗帜象征着现代妇女的战斗精神。final:最后的;violent:激烈的,violent acts:暴力的行为。

  64.D [解析]clean up是固定搭配,清除,铲除;句意为消除贫民区,符合题意。look up:抬头看:get up:起床;take up sth.:着手处理,开始从事,例如:He has taken up a job as a teacher.他开始当教师了。

  65.D[解析]根据本句意思,应该是不久我们就能想出解决问题的方法,arrive at a solution:拿出/想出解决办法。laught at:嘲笑;be stratled at:对……感到吃惊。

  参考译文

  种族偏见

  在一些种族偏见极为严重的国家,暴力已经开始理所当然地成为解决分歧的一种手段;并且这甚至不会受到质疑。在有些国家,白人用残忍的手段进行统治;有些国家,黑人则在城市中以放火、抢劫和掠夺来抗议。而双方的重要人物,虽然在其他方面显得很理智,也按捺不住起身为支持暴力活动辩护--似乎,像别的情况一样,这是一种合法的解决方法。真正使人感到可怕的,真正使你感到绝望的是认识到往往在关键时刻我们根本没有取得任何进步。虽然我们穿起了衬衣,打起了领带,不再往脸上和身上涂上战前的颜料,但我们的本能基本上没有改变。在有记载的全部人类历史中,那漫长的暴力记录,并没有让我们吸取任何教训。我们始终没有认识到暴力从来就没有解决过任何问题,却只会使问题更加尖锐。恐怖、流血和痛苦没有任何意义。在我们早上起来,阴郁地注视着冒着烟的废墟,考虑着是什么使我们变成这样时,我们并不能找到什么解决问题的方法。

  真正有理智的人知道解决问题的方法在哪儿,他们发现要让别人听从他们的意见越来越难。他们受自己人的蔑视,得不到他们的信任,甚至受自己人的迫害,只是因为他们竭力主张使用像执法这样显然不同寻常的方式来解决问题。如果我们把用在暴力活动的一半精力用于有益的事情上,如果我们努力清除贫民区,提高所有人的生活水平,为所有人提供教育和就业机会,那么很快就会找到解决问题的方法。

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