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2010年全国职称英语卫生类(B级)考试真题及答案

2010-11-25 09:38   来源:外语教育网编辑整理       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

第1部分:词汇选项(第1~15题,每题1分,共15分)

  下面每个句子中均有1个词或短语划有底横线,请为每处划线部分确定1个意义最为接近选项。

  1.I enjoyed the play-it had a clever plot and very funny dialogues.

  A.boring

  B.humorous

  C.original

  D.long

  2.In the process, the light energy converts to heat energy.

  A.reduces

  B. drops

  C. leaves

  D.changes

  3.Patricia stared at the other girls with resentment.

  A.doubt

  B.surprise

  C.love

  D.anger

  4.The thief was finally captured two miles away from the village.

  A.killed

  B.caught

  C.found

  D.jailed

  5.Such a database would be extremely costly to set up.

  A. destroy

  B.transfer

  C.update

  D.establish

  6.If we leave now, we should miss the the traffic.

  A.avoid

  B.mix

  C.stop

  D.direct

  7. He's spent years cultivating a knowledge of art.

  A.using

  B.denying

  C. sharing

  D.developing

  8.The two banks have announced plans to merge next year.

  A.close

  B.sell

  C.combine

  D.break

  9.Many cities have restricted smoking in public places.

  A.allowed

  B.kept

  C.limited

  D.stopped

  10. 1 want to provide my boys with a decent education.

  A.special

  B.general

  C.private

  D.good

  11. What are my chances of promotion if I stay here?

  A. advertisement

  B. replacement

  C.advancement

  D.retirement

  12.We've seen a marked shift in our approach to the social issues.

  A.regular

  B.clear

  C.quick

  D.great

  13. Her father was a quiet man with graceful manners.

  A.similar

  B.bad

  C.polite

  D.usual

  14. There was a profound silence after his remark.

  A.short

  B.sudden

  C. deep

  D.proud

  15. The document was compileded by the Department of Health.

  A.printed

  B. sent

  C.written

  D. attached

第2部分:阅读判断(第16~22题,每题1分,共7分)

  下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断:如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C。

  Breast Cancer Deaths Record Low

  The number of women dying from breast cancer has fallen to a record low by dropping under 12,000 a year for the first time since records began.

  The Cancer Research UK data showed that 11 ,990 women died in the UK in 2007.

  The previous lowest figure had been recorded in 1971-the year records began-after which it rose steadily year by year until the late 1980s.

  Professor Peter Johnson, Cancer Research UK's chief clinician, said, It's incredibly encoura- ging to see fewer women dying from breast cancer now than at any time in the last 40 years, despite breast cancer being diagnosed more often.

  Research has played a crucial role in this progress leading to improved treatments and better management for women with the disease.

  "The introduction of the NHS(国民保健制度)breast screening program has also contributed as women are more likely to survive the earlier cancer is diagnosed."

  Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in the UK with 45,500 women every year diag nosed with the disease-a 50% rise in 25 years.

  The number of deaths peaked in 1989, when 15,625 women died. It then fell by between 200 and 400 deaths each year until 2004.

  There was a slight rise in 2005 and then two vears of falls.

  Dr Sarah Cant, policy manager at Breakthrough Breast Cancer, said, "It is great news that fewer women are dying from breast cancer and highlights the impact of improved treatments, breast screening and awareness of the disease.

  "However, this is still too many women and incidence(发生率)of the disease is increasing year by year."

  The rising rate of breast cancer diagnosis has been put down to a variety of factors including obesity(肥胖)and alcohol consumption.

  16. 11,990 women died from breast cancer in the UK in 2007.

  A. Right

  B.Wrong

  C.Not mentioned

  17. Breast cancer deaths began to be recorded in the UK in 1971.

  A. Right

  B.Wrong

  C.Not mentioned

  18. The rate of breast cancer diagnosis in the UK has been dropping.

  A. Right

  B.Wrong

  C.Not mentioned

  19. Breast cancer can come back 10 years after you were first diagnosed.

  A. Right

  B.Wrong

  C.Not mentioned

  20. Breast cancer is more common in the UK than in many other countries.

  A. Right

  B.Wrong

  C.Not mentioned

  21. Fewer women died from breast cancer in the UK in 2005 than in 2004.

  A. Right

  B.Wrong

  C.Not mentioned

  22. Obesity and alcohol consumption may also lead to some other diseases.

  A. Right

  B.Wrong

  C.Not mentioned

笫3部分:概括大意与完成句子【第23 ~30题,每题1分,共8分)

  下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23 -26题要求从所给的6个选项中为第1-4段每段选择1个最佳标题;(2)第27 - 30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定1个最佳选项。

  Parkinson's Disease

  1 Parkinson's disease affects the way you move. It happens when there is a problem with certain nerve cells in the brain. Normally, these nerve cells make an important chemical called dopamine. Dopamine sends signals to the part of your brain that controls movement. It lets your muscles move smoothly and do what you want them to do. When you have Parkinson's, these nerve cells break down. Then you no longer have enough dopamine, and you have trouble moving the way you want to.

  2 No one knows for sure what makes these nerve cells break down. But scientists are doing a lot of research to look for the answer. They are studying many possible causes, including agin g and poisons in the environment. Abnormal genes seem to lead to Parkinson's disease in some people. But so far, there is not enough proof to show that it is always inherited.

  3 'rremor may be the first symptom you notice. It is one of the most common signs of the disease, although not everyone has it. More importantly, not everyone with a tremor has Parkinson's disease. Tremor often starts in just one arm or leg or only on one side of the body. It may be worse when you are awake but not moving the affected arm or leg. It may get better when you move the limb or you are asleep. In time, Parkinson's affects muscles all through your body, so it can lead to problems like trouble swallowing or constipation. In the later stages of the disease, a person with Parkinson's may have a fixed or blank expression, trouble speaking, and other problems. Some people also have a decrease in mental skills ( dementia).

  4 At this time, there is no cure for Parkinson's disease. But there are several types of medicines that can control the symptoms and make the disease easier to live with. You may not even need treatment if your symptoms are mild. Your doctor may wait to prescribe medicines until your symptoms start to get in the way of your daily life. Your doctor will adjust your medicines as your symptoms get worse. You may need to take several medicines to get the best results.

  23. Paragraph I_____________ .

  24. Paragraph 2 _____________.

  25. Paragraph 3_____________ .

  26. Paragraph 4 _____________.

  A. Tips for Patients with the Disease

  B. Common Treatment for the Disease

  C. Means of Diagnosis of the Disease

  D. Typical Symptoms of the Disease

  E. Possible Causes of the Disease

  F. Definition of Parkinson's Disease

  27. You'II find it hard to move the way you want to_____________ .

  28. A lot of research is being done to find ou_____________t .

  29. One of the most common signs of Parkinson's is tremor_____________.

  30. A person with Parkinson's has to learn to live with the disease,_____________.

  A. if there isn't enough dopamine m your body

  B. what affects muscles all through your body

  C. which cannot be cured yet

  D. if you have a fixed or blank expression

  E. which may be the first symptom you notice

  F. what causes Parkinson's disease

第4部分:阅读理解 (第 31~45题,每题 3分 ,共 45分)

  下面有3篇短文,每篇短文有5道题。请根据短文内容,为每题定1个最佳选项。

  第一篇

  Human Heart Can Make New Cells

  Solving a longstanding mystery, scientists have found that the human heart continues to generate new cardiac cells throughout the life span, although the rate of new cell production slows with age.

  The finding, published in the April 3 issue of Science, could open a new path for the treatment of heart diseases such as heart failure and heart attack ,experts say.

  "We find that the beating cells in the heart, cardiomyocytes, are renewed, " said lead researcher Dr. Jonas Frisen, a professor of stem cell research at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. "It has previously not been known whether we were limited to the cardiomyocytes we are bom with or if they could be renewed." he said.

  The process of renewing these cells changes over time, Frisen added. In a 20-year-old, about 1 percent of cardiomyocytes are exchanged each year, but the turnover rate decreases with age to only 0. 45 percent by age 75.

  "If we can understand how the generation of new cardiomyocytes is regulated , it may be potentially possible to develop pharmaceuticals that promote this process to stimulate regeneration after for example, a heart attack, " Frisen said.

  That could lead to treatment that helps restore damaged hearts.

  "A lot of people suffer from chronic heart failure," noted co-author Dr. Ratan Bhardwaj.

  Ratan Bhardwaj, also from the Karolinska Institute. " Chronic heart failure arises from heart cells dying, "he said.

  With this finding, scientists are "opening the door to potential therapies to having ourselves heal ourselves, " Bhardwaj said. " Maybe one could devise a pharmaceutical agent that would make heart cells make new and more cells to overcome the problem they are facing."

  But barriers remain. According to Bhardwaj , scientists do not yet know how to increase heart cell production to a rate that would replace cells faster than they are dying off, especially in older patients with heart failure. In addition, the number of new cells the heart produces was estimated using healthy hearts-whether the rate of cell tumover in diseased hearts is the same remains unknown.

  31. The human heart stops producing cardiac cells

  A. when a person becomes old

  B. as soon as a person gets sick

  C. immediately after a person is born

  D. once a person dies

  32. The finding could prove to be useful to

  A. the analysis of cardiac cells

  B. the prevention of chronic diseases

  C. the treatment of heart disease

  D. the study of longstanding mysteries

  33. In people in their mid-70s, only 0. 45 percent of cardiomyocytes _ .

  A. are still functional

  B. are reduced each year

  C. are replaced each year

  D. are damaged each year

  34. Chronic heart failure is attributed to

  A. the dying heart cells

  B. the effect of pharmceutical

  C. the weight of a patient

  D. the life span of a person

  35. It is not known yet if the rate of cell turnover in diseased hearts

  A. is high enough to replace cells faster than they're dying off

  B. is of any use to researchers

  C. is the same as that in healthy hearts

  D. changes over time

  第二篇

  The Ice Man

  On a September day in 1991, two Germans were climbing the mountain between Austria and Italy. High up on a mountain pass, they found the body of a man lying on the ice. At that height (10,499 feet, or 3,200 meters) , the ice is usually permanent, but 1991 had been an especially warm year. The mountain ice had melted more than just .usual and so the body had come to the surface.

  It was lying face down. The skeleton(骨架) was in perfect condition, except for a wound in the head. There was still skin on the bones and the remains of some clothes. The hands were still holding the wooden handle of an ax and on the feet there were very simple leather and cloth boots. Nearby was a pair of gloves made of tree bark(树皮) and a holder for arrows.

  Who was the man? How and when had he died? Everybody had a different answer to these questions. Some people thought that it was from this century, perhaps the body of a soldier who died in World War I, since several soldier had already been found in the area. A Swiss woman believed it might be her father, who had died in those mountains twenty years before and whose body had never been found. The scientists who rushed to look at the body thought it was probably much older,maybe even a thousand years old.

  With modern dating techniques, the scientists soon learned that the iceman was about 5,300 years old. Born in about 3300 B. C. he lived during the Bronze Age in Europe. At first scientists thought he was probably a hunter who had died from an accident in the high mountains. More recent evidence, however, tells a different story. A new kind of X-ray shows an arrowhead still stuck in his shoulder. It left only a tiny hole in his skin, but it caused internal damage and bleeding. He almost certainly died from this wound, and not from the wound on the back of his head. This means that the was probably in some kind of battle. It may have been part of a large war, or he may have been fighting bandits. He may even have been a bandit himself.

  By studying his clothes and tools, scientists have already learned a great deal from the Iceman about the times he lived in. we may never know the full story of how he died, but he has given us important clues to the history of those distant times.

  36. The body of the Iceman was found in the mountains mainly because

  A. the melted ice made him visible

  B. two Germans were climbing the mountains

  C. he was lying on the ice

  D. he was just on a mountain pass

  37. What can be inferred from paragraph 2?

  A. The Iceman was killed while working.

  B. The Iceman lived a poor life.

  C. The Iceman could have died from the wound in the head.

  D. The Iceman was struck dead from behind.

  38. All the following are assumptions once made about the Iceman EXCEPT .

  A. he was a soldier in World War I

  B. he was a Swiss woman's long-lost father

  C. he was born about a thousand years ago

  D. he came from Italy

  39. The scientists made the deduction that the Iceman '

  A. was hit in the shoulder by an arrowhead .

  B. was probably in some kind of a battle

  C. had got a wound on the back of his head

  D. had a tiny hole in his skin causing his death

  40. The word"bandits" in paragraph 4 could be best replaced by

  A. robbers

  B. soldiers

  C. hunters

  D. shooters

  第三篇

  Holding on to hope may not make patients happier as they deal with chronic illness or diseases, according to a new study by University of Michigan Health System researchers.

  " Hope is an important part of happiness, "said Peter A. Ubel, M. D. director of the U-M Center for Behavioral and Decision Sciences in Medicine and one of the authors of the happily hopeless study, "but there's a dark side of hope. Sometimes, if hope makes people put off getting on with their life, it can get in the way of happiness. "

  The results showed that people do not adapt well to situations if they are believed to be shortterm. Ubel and his co-authors-both from U-M and Carnegie Mellon University-studied patients who had new colostomies: their colons were removed and they had to have bowel movements in a pouch that lies outside their body.

  At the time they received their colostomy, some patients were told that the colostomy was reversible-that they would undergo a second operation to reconnect their bowels after several months. Others were told that the colostomy was permanent and that they would never have normal bowel function again. The second group-the one without hope-reported being happier over the next six months than those with reversible colostomies.

  "We think they were happier because they got on with their lives. They realized the cards they were dealt, and recognized that they had no choice but to play with those cards," says Ubel, who is also a professor in the Department of Intemal Medicine.

  "The other group was waiting for their colostomy to be reversed, " he added. "They contrasted their current life with the life they hoped to lead, and didn't make the best of their current situation. "

  "Hopeful messages may not be in the best interests of the patient and may interfere with the patient's emotional adaptation, " Ubel says."I don't think we should take hope away. But I think we have to be careful about building up people's hope so much that they put off living their lives. "

  41. Chronically ill patients may be happier

  A. if they keep thinking of their past

  B. if they believe they'Il recover

  C. if they put off moving on

  D. if they manage to get on with their life

  42. What had happened to the patients under study?

  A. They had just survived an accident.

  B. They had just had an operation.

  C. They had just injured their colons.

  D. They had just made some pouches.

  43. One group of the patients was happier because

  A. they made the best of their current situation

  B. they were good at playing cards

  C. they regained normal bowel function

  D. they were promised another operation

  44. The other group was not as happy because .

  A. they accepted their current situation

  B. they were anxious to get better

  C. they missed their previous life

  D. they refused to play cards

  45. What could be the message of the passage?

  A. Giving up hope means giving up happiness.

  B. Letting go of hope is at times a better choice.

  C. Hope is what makes people on.

  D. Hope frequently gets in the way of happiness.

第5部分:补全短文(第46~50题,每题2分,共10分)

  下面的短文有5处空白,短文后有6个句子,其中5个取自短文 ,据短文内容将其分别放回原有位置,以恢复文章原貌。

  Semco

  At 21, Ricardo Semler became boss of his father's business in Brazil, Semco, which sold parts for ships. Semler Junior worked like a madman, from 7 :30 am, until midnight every day. One afternoon, while touring a factory in New York, he collapsed. The doctor who treated him said, "

  There's nothing wrong with you. But if you continue, like this, you'll find a new home in our hospital. " Semler got the message. He changed the way he worked. In fact, he changed the ways his employees worked too.

  He let his workers take more responsibility so that they would be the ones worring when things went wrong. He allowed them to set their own salaries, and he cut all the jobs he thought were unnecessary, like receptionists and secretaries. (46) "Everyone at Semco, even top managers, meets guests in reception, does the photocopying, sends faxes, types letters and dials the phone. "

  He completely reorganized the office: instead of walls, they have plants at Semco, so bosses cann't shut themselves away from everyone else (47) As for uniforms, some people wear suits and others wear T-shirts.

  Semler says, " We have a sales manager named Rubin Agater who sits there reading the newspaper hour after hour. He doesn't even pretend to be busy. But when a Semco pump on the othe other side of the world failes millions of gallons of oil are about to spill into the sea. Rubin springs into action. (48) That's when he earns his salary. No one cares if he doesn't look busy the rest of the time. "

  Semco has flexible working hours : the employees decide when they need to arrive at work. The employees also evaluate their bosses twice a year. (49)

  It sounds perfect, but does it work? The answer is in the numbers: in the last six years,

  Semco's revenues have gone from $ 35 million to $212 million. The company has grown from 800 employees t0 3,000. Why?

  Semler says it's because of "peer pressure" . Peer pressure makes employees work hard for everyone else. (50) In other words, Ricardo Semler treats his workers like adults and expects them to act like adults. And they do.

  A. If somone isn't doing his job well, the other workers will not allow the situation to continue.

  B. This saved money and brought more equality to the company.

  C. And the workers are free to decorate their workspace as they want.

  D. He knows everything there is to know about our pumps and how to fix them.

  E. Most managers spend their time making it difficult for workers to work.

  F. Also, Semco lets its workers use the company's machiners for their own projects, and makes

  them take holidays for at least thirty days a year.

第6部分:完形填空(51~65题,每题1分,共15分)

  下面的短文有15处空白,请根据短文内容为每处空白确定1个最佳选项.

  Nurse ! I Want My Mummy

  When a child is ill in hospital, a parent's first reaction is to be (5l)them.

  Most hospitals now allow parents to sleep ( 52) with their child , providing a bed or so fa on the ward.

  But until the 1970s this (53)was not only frowned upon-it was actively discouraged. Staff worried that the children were (54) when their parents left , and so there was a blanket ban.

  A concemed nurse, Pamela Hawthorn, disagreed and her study " Nurse! I want my mummy"published in 1974 , ( 55) the face of paediatric nursing.

  Martin Johnson, a professor of nursing at the University of Salford, said that the work of (56)like Pamela had changed the face of patient care.

  "Pamela's study was done against the (57) of a lively debate in paediatrics and psy-chology as to the degree women should spend with children in the outside world and the degree to which they should be allowed to visit children in (58) . "

  . "The idea was that if mum came to (59)a small child in hospital the child would beupset and inconsolable for hours. "

  "Yet the nurse noticed that if mum did not come at (60) the child stayed in a rela tively stable state but they might be depressed. "

  "Of course we know now that they had almost given up hope (61) mum was eve coming back. "

  "To avoid a little bit of pain they said that no-one should visit."

  "But children were alone and depressed so Hawthorn said parents should be (62) to visit."

  "Dr Peter Carter, chief executive and general secretary of the Royal College of Nursing, saidher (63) had been seminal. "

  "Her research put an end to the (64) when parents handed their children over to strangers at the door of the hospital ward. "

  " As a result of her work, parents and carers are now recognised as partners m care and are af forded the opportunity to stay with their children whilst they are in hospital, (65) has dramatically improved both parents' and children's experience of care. "

  51. A. with B. over C. upon D. for

  52. A. soundly B. overtime C. fortnight D. overnight

  53. A. order B. thought C. exercise D. practice

  54. A. hungry B. upset C. surprised . D. happy

  55. A. changed B. examined C. covered D. cleaned

  56. A. parents B. nurses C. doctors D. teachers

  57. A. field B. background C. circles D. history

  58. A. hospital B. family C. group D. school

  59. A. worry B. control C. visit D. take

  60. A. all B. large C. will D. it

  61. A. useless B. that C. because D. whether

  62. A. forced B. guided C. persuaded D. allowed

  63. A. work B. condition C. doubt D. dream

  64. A. months B. weeks C. days D. hours

  65. A. which B. this C. what D. thus

参考答案:

  第1部分:词汇选项

  1. B [解析]我喜欢这个戏剧,它情节巧妙,台词幽默。boririg:乏味的,无聊的,如: It,s a boring film.这是一部乏味的电影。humorou:幽默的,如:He is a humorous man.他这个人很幽默。original:最初的,独创的,如:If the painting is an original,it will be very valuable.如果这幅画是真迹,那么一定会价值连城。long:长的,长时间的,如:She is a girl with long hair.她留着长头发。只有humorous和funny意思上最为接近。

  2. D [解析]在这一过程中,光能转变为热能。reduce:减少,如:He is trying to reduce expenses.他正试图减少开支。drop:降落,降低,如:The bottle dropped and broke.瓶子掉下来摔碎了。leave:离开,如:Mr. Smith left the room at two o'clock.史密斯先生两点离开了房间。change:改变,如:In autumn the leaves change from green to brown.秋天树叶由绿色变成黄褐色。只有change和convert意思上最为接近。

  3. D[解析] Patricia充满仇恨.地盯着其他女孩子。doubt:疑问,不确定,如:The out come of the election remains in doubt.选举的结果仍然不能肯定。surprise:惊讶,如:To my surprise,he refused to cooperate with us.令我吃惊的是,他不肯与我们合作。love:爱,如:My mother's love for me was very great.我母亲对我的爱是很深的。anger:怒气,如:I couldn't restrain my anger.我无法抑制我的愤怒。只有anger和resentment意思上最为接近。

  4. B [解析]小偷最后在距离村子两英里的地方被抓获了。kill:杀死,如:He was killed in the air crash.他在空难中死去。catch:抓住,如:I'II throw the ball and you catch it.我扔球你接。find:发现:如:Newton found that all masses attract each other.牛顿发现所有的物质都相互吸引。jail:监禁,如:He was jailed for twenty years.他被监禁了20年。只有catch和capture意思上最为接近。

  5. D [解析]要建立这么一个数据库花销会非常大。destroy:破坏,如:A fire destroyed the house.一场火毁坏了那座房屋。transfer:转移,调动,如:She has been transferred to another department.她已被调往另一部门。update:更新,如:The data should be updated once a week.这些数据应该每星期更新一次。establish:建立,如:Our hospital was established in 1950.我们的医院建于一九五O年。只有establish和set up意思上最为接近。

  6. A [解析]如果现在出发,我们应该可以避开交通高峰期。avoid:避免,如:She braked suddenly and avoided an accident.她紧急刹车,避免了一场车祸。mix:混合,如:You can,t mix oil with water.你不能把油和水混合。stop:停止,如:My watch has stopped.我的表停了。direct:指引,指导,如:Would you please direct me to the zoo?请问去动物园怎么走?只有avoid和miss意思上最为接近。

  7. D [解析]他花了好多年的时间学习艺术知识。use:使用,如:May I use your pen? 我用一下你的笔可以吗?deny:否认,如:No one can deny the fact that fire burns.无人能否认火能燃烧的事实。share:分享,如:Sam and I share a room.山姆和我合住一间房间。develop:发展,如:Her friendship with David developed slowly.她与戴维的友谊发展缓慢。只有develop和cultivate意思上最为接近。

  8. C [解析]这两家银行已经宣布了明年合并的计划。close:关闭,如:She closed the door softly.她轻轻地关上门。sell:卖,如:It is not price but quality that sells our shoes.我们的鞋好卖不是因为价钱低而是因为质量好。combine:联合,如:Some films combine education with recreation.有些电影把教育与娱乐结合起来。break:打破,如:The plate broke to pieces when it fell on the floor.盘子落在地上摔碎了。只有combine和merge意思上最为接近。

  9. C [解析]很多城市限制在公共场所吸烟。allow:允许,如:Swimming is not allowed at this beach.这片海滩禁止游泳。keep:保留,如:We keep food in a refrigerator.我们把食物存放在冰箱里。limit:限制,如:The teacher limited his students t0 500 words for their compositions.老师把学生的作文限制在五百字以内。stop:停止,如:Stop for a while and take a rest.停一会儿休息休息。只有limit和restrict意思上最为接近。

  10.D [解析]我想给我的儿子们提供好的教育。special:特殊的,特别的,如:He never drinks except on special occasions.除非在特殊场合,他从不喝酒。general:普遍的,一般的,如:This is a general magazine.这是一本普通杂志。private:私下的,私人的,如:That's my private vlew.那是我个人的观点。good:好的,如:Exercise is good for health.运动有益于健康。只有good和decent意思上最为接近。

  11.C [解析]如果我留在这里,那么提拔的几率有多大?advertisement:广告,如:Adver-tisement helps to sell goods.广告有助于推销商品。replacement:替代品,替代者,如:My secre tary leaves us next week,so we are advertising for a replacement.我的秘书下星期要走,所以我们现在正登广告招聘一位替代者。advancement:进步,晋升,如:His advancement to major came two years ago.他于两年前被提升为少校。retirement:退休,如:She took to painting after retirement.她退休后爱上绘画。只有advancement和promotion意思上最为接近。

  12.B [解析]我们已经看到解决社会问题的方法有了明显的改变。regular:规律的,如:He's got no regular job.他没有固定的工作。clear:清楚的,如:We had a clear view of the mountains.我们清楚地看到群山。quick:快速的,如:He is quick to understand.他理解能力强。great:好的,伟大的,如:Einstein was agreat scientist.爱因斯坦是个优秀的科学家。只有clear和marked意思上最为接近。

  13.C [解析]她的父亲沉默寡言、举止文雅。similar:类似的,如:My view is similar to yours.我的看法与你相似。bad:坏的,糟糕的,如:The weather was really bad.天气真糟。polite:礼貌的,如:He's always so polite to people.他对人总是非常有礼貌。usual:平时的,如:Shall we meet at the usual time and place?我们在老地方、老时间见面好吗?只有polite和grace ful意思上最为接近。

  14.C [解析]他讲完话后的沉默意味深长。short:短暂的,如:The railway station is only a short distance from here.火车站离这里很近。sudden:突然的,如:His rise to power was very sudden.他的掌权十分突然。deep:深刻的,深奥的,如:Mathematics is too deep for me.我觉得数学太深奥。proud:骄傲的,如:He's too proud to speak to poor people like us.他太骄傲了,从不与我们这样的穷人说话。只有deep和profound意思上最为接近。

  15.C[解析]该文件是由卫生部起草的。print:打印,如:The book was printed on rough yellow paper.这本书用粗糙的黄纸印刷。send:寄送,发送,如:She sent me a Christmas card.她给我寄来一张圣诞贺卡。write:写,如:He wr,te lots of poems in his life.他一生中写了许多诗。attach:贴上,系上,如:He'II attach the label to your Iuggage.他会把标签系在你的行李上。只有write和compile意思上最为接近。

  第2部分:阅读判断

  16.A[解析]在英国,2007年有11,990名女士死于乳腺癌。根据第二段:The Cancer Research UK data showed that 11.990 women died in the UK in 2007.英国癌症研究中心的数据显示,2007年英国妇女的死亡人数是11,990。虽然没有专门强调这一死亡人数是由于乳腺癌而死亡,不过根据句子中的Cancer Research和第一段的内容推断这里即乳腺癌患者的死亡人数。因此该论断是正确的。

  17.A[解析]在英国,乳腺癌患者的死亡率统计是从1971年开始的。根据文章第三段中:The previous lowest figure had been recorded in 1971-the year records began…。先前的最低点是在1971年,即开始做该统计的那一年。由此得知该论断是正确的。

  18.B [解析]在英国被诊断为乳腺癌的比例一直在降低。根据第四段:- despite breast cancer being diagnosed more often。…尽管被诊断为乳腺癌的病例越来越常见。由此可知该论断是错误的。

  19.C [解析]该论断文章中未提及。

  20.C[解析]该论断文章中未提及。

  21.B [解析]2005年死于乳腺癌的患者少于2004年。根据倒数第四段中:There was a slight rise in 2005。2005年人数轻微上升。由此可以推断该论断是错误的。

  22.C[解析]最后一段说obesity(肥胖)and alcohol consumption是诱发乳腺癌的原因之一,但并未提及其他疾病,因此选C。put down to的意思是"归因于"。

  参考译文

  乳腺癌死亡率创新低

  妇女死于乳腺癌的记录已经下降到了历史最低,一年中死于乳腺癌的人数降到不足12,000,这是有史第一次。

  英国癌症研究中心的数据显示,2007年英国妇女死于乳腺癌的人数是11,990。

  先前的最低点是在1971年,即开始做该统计的那一年。之后,直到20世纪80年代末期,死亡率逐年攀升。

  英国癌症研究中心的首席临床医师彼得·约翰逊教授说,虽然被诊断为乳腺癌的病例越来越常见,但是看到死于乳腺癌的女性比过去40年的任何时候都少真是令人欢欣鼓舞。

  科学研究在对女性患者进行更有效地治疗和更好地管理的过程中起到了至关重要的作用。

  国民保健制度乳腺扫描计划的引进也做出了贡献,因为早期诊断出的癌症患者更容易生存下来。

  在英国,乳腺癌是现在的最常见的癌症,每年有45,500女性被诊断出患乳腺癌--这个数字在25年中增加了50%。死亡的人数在1989年达到最高--15,625妇女死亡。接着死亡人数每年减少200到400人,这持续到2004年。这一数字在2005年有轻微的上升,然后是两年的下降。

  "突破乳腺癌"的政策经理莎拉·肯特博士说:"越来越少的妇女死于乳腺癌,对改善治疗、乳腺扫描和疾病意识的影响力的着重强调,都是令人振奋的消息。"

  "然而,仍然有很多妇女患病,这种疾病的发生率仍在逐年增加。"

  不断上升的乳腺癌发生率归因于多种因素,其中包括肥胖和饮酒。

  第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

  23.F[解析]第一段的大意即:什么是帕金森综合征?因此选F。

  24.E [解析]第二段的大意即:什么原因导致帕金森症?因此选E。

  25.D [解析]第三段的大意即:帕金森综合征的典型症状是什么?因此选D。

  26.B[解析]第四段的大意即:如何治疗帕金森症?因此选B。

  27.A [解析]如果你的体内没有足够多的多巴胺,那么你会发现活动起来有困难。根据第一段最后一句:Then you no longer have enough dopamine,and you have trouble moving the way you want to.因此选A。

  28.F[解析]人们正在进行大量的研究来发现导致帕金森综合征的原因。根据第二段前三句话及后面提到的aging,poisons in environment等可推断应选F。

  29.E[解析]帕金森症最主要的一个症状就是颤抖,颤抖也可能是你注意到的最初症状。根据是第三段的第一句话:Tremor may be the first symptom you notice.可知E正确。

  30.C [解析]得了帕金森症的病人必须要学会适应这种疾病,因为这还是一种不治之症。根据文章第四段第一句:At this time,there is no cure for Parkinson's disease.可知应选C。

  参考译文

  帕金森氏综合征

  帕金森氏综合征会影响你行动的方式。当大脑的某些神经细胞出现问题时,这种疾病就会爆发。正常情况下,这些神经细胞会产生一种叫多巴胺的重要的化学物质。多巴胺会向你的大脑中控制行为的部分发出信号。它使你的肌肉能活动自如,做你想做的事。一旦你患上帕金森氏综合征,这些神经细胞就会出问题。接着,你不再有足够的多巴胺,并开始行动困难。

  没人知道什么促使这些神经细胞出现问题。但是,科学家们做了很多研究来寻找答案。

  他们研究了很多可能的病因,包括年龄老化和环境污染。在某些人身上,似乎是不正常的基因导致了帕金森氏综合征的发病。但是目前没有足够的证据表明它是遗传的。

  颤抖可能是你注意到的第一个症状。虽然并不是每一位患者都有这种症状,但是它是这种疾病最常见的表现之一。更重要的是,并不是每一个颤抖的人都患有帕金森氏综合征。颤抖往往从一条胳膊,一条腿或身体的一侧开始。这种情况在你醒着但是没有移动受影响的胳膊或者腿时更严重些。但是当你移动肢体或睡眠时情况会有所缓和。不久,帕金森氏综合征会影响你的全身肌肉,导致吞咽困难及便秘。在疾病后期,患这种病的人可能会有表情僵化,言语困难及其他一些问题。一些患者也会思维退化。

  现在还没有办法治愈帕金森氏综合征。但是有几种药物能控制症状并让患者好受些。如果你的症状很轻微的话,你可能根本不需要治疗。直到你的症状影响到你的日常生活方式时,医生才会给你开药。伴随着你的症状的恶化,医生将会调整用药。为了得到最好的疗效你得吃几种药。 外@语教育网编辑整理

  第4部分:阅读理解

  第一篇

  31.D [解析]根据是第一段中:…the human heart continues to generate new cardiac cells throughout the life span。在人的整个生命进程中,其心脏不时产生新的心肌细胞。言外之意,这个过程直到人死才会停止。

  32.C [解析]根据是第二段中:The finding,…,could open a new path for the treatment of heart diseases 这一研究成果将为心脏病的医治开拓新的途径。

  33.C[解析]第四段说,一个人20岁时,其每年被更替的心肌细胞为1%,随着年龄的增长,该更替率( turnover rate)不断下降,等到75岁时,只有0.45%。

  34.A [解析]倒数第三段说:Chronic heart failure arises from heart cells dying。慢性心衰是由心肌细胞死亡导致的。

  35.C[解析]最后一句说:心脏产生的新细胞的数量是按照健康心脏计算的,而有心脏病的细胞更替率是否与健康心脏相同还不得而知。

  参考译文

  人类心脏可以制造新的细胞

  科学家发现在人的整个生命进程中,心脏会持续产生新的心肌细胞,尽管新细胞产生的速度会随着年龄的增长而降低,这一发现解决了很长时间以来的一个谜团。

  这一研究成果发表于《科学》杂志四月三号那一期,专家称,这一研究成果将为心脏病(例如心脏衰竭和心脏病发作)的医治开拓新的途径。

  研究负责人Jonas Frisen博士是瑞典斯德哥尔摩卡罗琳斯卡研究院研究干细胞的教授。

  他说:"我们发现心脏中的心肌细胞会被更替。在此之前我们不知道我们生来就拥有的心肌细胞是固定的还是可以更新。"

  Frisen补充说,这些细胞的更替过程会随着时间而变化。一个人20岁时,其每年被更替的心肌细胞大约为1%,随着年龄的增长,该更替率不断下降,等到75岁时,只有0. 45%。

  Frisen说:"如果我们知道新的心肌细胞产生的规律,也许就有可能研发出在心脏病发后能促进细胞生成的药物。"

  那将有助于受损心脏恢复。

  该研究论文的合著者Ratan Bhardwaj博士说:"很多人都在忍受慢性心衰的折磨。"

  Ratan Bhardwaj也是来自于卡罗琳斯卡研究院,他说:"慢性心衰是由心肌细胞死亡引发的。"

  有了这一发现,"科学家即将开启一扇通往自愈潜在疗法的大门",Bhardwaj说:"也许我们可以设计出一种药物制剂使心脏细胞生成出更多更新的细胞来克服它们面临的问题。"

  不过障碍依然存在。根据Bhardwaj的观点,科学家还不知道如何才能使心脏细胞产生的速度超过其死亡的速度,尤其是对于患有心脏病的老年人。此外,心脏产生的新细胞的数量是按照健康心脏计算的,而有心脏病的细胞更替率能否与健康心脏相同还不得而知。

  第二篇

  36.A [解析]第一段最后一句提到:山里的积雪比平时融化得多一些,因此尸体就显露出来了。

  37.C[解析]第二段提到:除了头部一处伤以外,骨架保存完好。这里是在暗示该冰人死于头上的伤,因为其他身体部位都是完好的。

  38.D[解析]第三段后三句分别提到了A、B、C选项的内容,唯独D选项的内容没有提及。

  39.B [解析]根据是第四段的倒数第三句:This means that the was probably in some kind of battle,

  40.A [解析]bandit -词的意思是:强盗,土匪,因此选robber和它意思上最为接近。

  参考译文

  冰人

  1991年9月的一天,两个德国人正在攀登位于奥地利和意大利之间的山脉,在山上一处要隘发现了一具躺在冰上的尸体。在那个高度(10,499英尺,3,200米),山上是常年结冰的,但是1991年特别温暖。山上的冰比往年融化得多,因此尸体就出现在冰面上了。

  这具尸体面部朝下。除了头上的伤外,骨骼很完整。骨头上仍然保留着皮肤和衣物的残留。手上攥着一把斧头的木头把,脚上还穿着皮革布料制成的靴子。旁边还有一双树皮制成的手套和一个箭托。

  这人是谁?他怎么样死的?何时死的?每个人对这些问题都有不同的回答。一些人认为这是本世纪死于第一次世界大战的士兵的尸体,因为这一区域有好几个士兵的尸体被发现了。

  一位瑞士妇女认为那人是她父亲,他二十多年前死于这片山峦上而且尸体从未被找到过。蜂拥而至查看这具尸体的科学家们认为它的年代更久远,也许有一千多年了。

  用现代断代技术,科学家们很快就发现这个冰人大约有5,300岁了。冰人生于公元前3300年,他生活在青铜器时代的欧洲。最初,科学家们认为他可能是一位死于高山上一场意外的猎户。然而更多的证据却显示了一个完全不同的故事。一种新型的X射线显示他的肩膀上仍然插着一个箭头。它仅在他的皮肤上留下了微小的孔,但是却导致体内损伤和出血。

  基本上肯定他是由于这个伤口致死,而不是死于头后部的伤口。这表明他可能死于某场战斗中。也许这是一场大战役的一部分,或者他是死于同强盗搏斗中。他甚至可能本身就是一个强盗。

  通过研究他的衣物和工具,科学家们得到了很多关于他生活的年代的信息。虽然我们永远都不会知道他是如何死的,但是他却已经让我们了解了很多关于那个遥远年代的重要历史线索。

  第三篇

  41.D [解析]第二段的最后一句:Sometimes,if hope makes people put off getting on with their life,it can get in the way of happiness.有时候,如果希望使人们不能适应自己的生活,那么希望就会阻碍幸福。也就是说,当人们能适应自己的生活时,就会更幸福。第五段也提到We think they were happier because they got on with their lives.因此选D。

  42.B [解析]第三段说…studied patients who had new colostomies…colostomy是结肠造口手术。因此B是正确答案。

  43.A[解析]第五段说觉得幸福的那组"We think they were happier because they got on with their lives."第六段说不幸福的那组"They contrasted their current life with the Iife they hoped to lead,and didn't make the best of their current situation."因此答案应为A。

  44.B [解析]答案所在段是第六段"The other group was waiting for their colostomy to be reversed,"he added."They contrasted their current life with the life they hoped to lead, and didn't make the best of their current situation."由此可见,不幸福的原因是B。

  45.B [解析]该题目是文章主旨题。本文的中心是说希望不一定都能带来幸福,要能面对现实,适应不幸,才会更幸福。A项civing up hope means glving up happiness.和C项Hope is what makes people move on.都与本文主旨不符。D项Hope frequently gets in the way of happiness中frequently(经常地)使用不当,该命题是错误的。B项Letting go of hope is at timesa better choice.符合本文主题。

  参考译文

  密歇根州立大学卫生系统研究人员的一个研究表明,对慢性病人来说,抱有希望或许并不能使病人更快乐。

  行为与决策医学U-M中心主任,快乐无望研究的作者之一,Peter A.Ubel M.D说:"希望是快乐的一个重要部分,但是希望有一个灰暗面。有时候,如果希望使人们不能适应自己的生活,那么希望就会阻碍幸福。"

  这个结果显示,如果人们认为目前的处境是短期的,人们就不容易适应它。来自卡内基梅隆大学的Ubel和他的合作者研究刚做完结肠造口术的病人发现,他们的结肠被移除,并且他们不得不排便于一个身体外面的袋子里。

  在他们做结肠造口手术的时候,一些病人被告知这个手术是可逆的--他们将在数月后接受第二次手术,重新建立正常的大便通道。而另外一些病人被告知这个手术是永久的,他们以后将再也没有正常的大便功能。报道称,第二组,就是没有希望的那组,在之后的六个多月里比要做可逆结肠造口手术的那组更快乐。

  身兼内科医学通讯员教授的Ubel说:"我们认为第二组比较快乐是因为他们适应了自己的生活。他们认识到自己手里的牌,并且知道除了玩这些牌没有其他选择余地。"

  他同时补充道:"第一组在等待他们的结肠造口手术被扭转,他们总是拿现在的生活和他们想要的生活作比较,没有很好地适应现在的情况。"

  Ubel说:"希望不一定给患者带来最大的利益,它可能会干扰患者情绪的适应性,我认为我们不该放弃希望。但是我们在帮助别人建立希望时应该倍加小心,如果希望过大,他们就不能过真正属于自己的生活。" 外@语教育网编辑整理

  第5部分:补全短文

  46.B [解析]该空格前一句提到Semler去掉了一些不是必须的工作岗位,例如秘书和接待员,而后面一句就说明这样做的好处:既经济又平等,即B选项的内容。

  47.C[解析]该段主要讲的是办公室的结构变化,例如老板和员工的办公室都是用植物隔开的,还提到了员工的着装也较为自由,因此这里选C合适,即:员工可以随心所欲地装饰他们自己的办公室。

  48.D[解析]该段以负责公司油泵维修的Rubin Agater为例来做说明。该段前一句提到公司的油泵( pump)出问题了,而Rubin Agater是这方面的专家。因此选D。

  49.F[解析]该段第一句即说明该公司在工作时间和其他方面的灵活性和对员工的自由度和益处,例如员工可以自己决定几点来上班。只有F选项的内容(使用公司的机器用来做自己的项目,而且员工每年有至少三十天的假期)和这一思路吻合。

  50.A [解析]该段前两句中提到:Semler说这源自同事的压力,来自同事的压力让每一个员工为其他员工努力工作。因此选A。

  参考译文

  Semco

  Ricardo Semler 21岁时成为他父亲位于巴西的公司Semco的老板,这是一个船舶零件销售公司。Semler是个工作狂,每天从上午七点半工作至午夜。一天下午,当他在纽约一家工厂参观时病倒了。他的主治医生说:"你没什么大碍,不过如果你还继续这样拼命工作,你将在我们医院里找到一个新家。"Semler领会了医生的意思。他改变了工作方式,实际上他也改变了他的员工工作的方式。

  他让员工承担更多的责任,以便于当事情出差错时忧心忡忡的人不是他而是他的员工。他允许员工自己设定薪水,把他认为可有可无的职位例如接待员和秘书去掉。这一做法既省钱又给公司带来更多的公平。"在Semco的每个人,甚至是高层管理者都要亲自负责接待来客、复印资料、收发传真、打印信件和拨打电话。"

  他完全重组了办公室:在Semco,植物取代了墙壁,这样一来,老板就不能把自己关在房间和大家隔绝。而且员工也可以随心所欲地装饰他们的办公室。至于上班的制服,有人穿套装也有人穿T恤。

  Semler说:"我们有一个销售经理名字叫做Rubin Agater,他整天坐在办公室看报纸,甚至都不做出忙碌的样子。可是如果在地球的另一端我们公司的一台泵要是坏了,几百万加仑的石油流到大海里,那么他会立刻行动起来。关于我们的泵以及泵的维修他了如指掌。这就是他赚钱的时候。至于其余时间他看上去一点也不忙碌,没有人会在意的。"

  Semco的工作时间很灵活,员工自己决定几点上班。员工们还一年两次对他们的老板进行评估。此外,Semco还让员工使用公司的机器来做自己的项目,并且员工每年有至少三十天的假期。

  这种方法听上去很好,不过奏效吗?看一下数据就知道了:在过去的六年中,Semco的年收入从3千5百万美元上升至2. 12亿美元,公司员工规模已经从800人壮大到3000人。这些是什么原因呢?

  Semler说这源自同事的压力,来自同事的压力让每一个员工为其他员工努力工作。如果有人工作不努力,那么其他人就不会让这样的局面继续下去。换句话说,Ricardo Semler把他的员工当做成年人对待,期望他们用成年人的方式去工作。他的员工也确实如他所愿。

  第6部分:完形填空

  51.A[解析]孩子住院了,父母的第一反应肯定是要和孩子在一起。"to be with somebody"表示"和谁在一起"。

  52.D[解析]给父母在病房里提供床或沙发,是让他们和孩子一起过夜。ovemight:整夜地,意思符合题意。

  53.D [解析]此处应指允许父母在医院里陪孩子这种做法(practice)。

  54.B[解析]医院担心父母一离开,孩子会十分不安(upset),所以干脆不让父母和孩子见面。

  55.A [解析]Pamela的研究使儿科护理的面貌发生了改变(change)。

  56.B [解析]前面提到Pamela是一位护士(nurse)。

  57.B[解析]英语里表示"在什么背景下"用"against the background of"这一搭配。

  58.A[解析]此处显然指允许父母到医院探望孩子的时间。

  59.C[解析]前面已经提到去医院探望(visit)孩子。

  60.A[解析]本句意思是,如果父母干脆就不来医院探望孩子会发生的情况。not at all: 一点也不。

  61.B[解析]that引导同位语从句,修饰并说明hope的具体内容。

  62.D [解析]be allowed to do sth:被允许做某事。孩子们独自一人闷闷不乐,因此应该允许父母亲来探视。

  63.A[解析]该篇文章的主题就是护士Parmela的工作(work)所产生的重大影响。

  64.C [解析]"the days"表示"时代"。

  65.A [解析]which引导定语从句,修饰前面提到的整件事情。

  参考译文

  护士,我要妈妈

  小孩子生病住院时,家长的第一反应是陪在他们身边。

  现在大多数医院都在病房内提供床或沙发,允许父母陪孩子过夜。

  但直到20世纪70年代,这个习惯不仅遭至不满,而且还被积极阻止。工作人员担心父母一离开,孩子们会烦躁不安,因此就设置了全面禁令。

  一位有心的护士,帕梅拉·霍桑,不同意此种做法,她的研究《护士,我要妈妈》发表于1974年,改变了儿科护理的面貌。

  索尔福德大学护理专业的教授马丁·约翰逊说,像帕梅拉这样的护士的工作改变了病人护理的面貌。

  "帕梅拉的研究是在儿科学和心理学的激烈论辩的背景下完成的,这一论辩是关于女性应该与孩子在医院久的世界待在一起的程度以及在何种程度上允许她们探望住院的孩子。"

  "一般的想法是如果母亲来到医院探望小孩,小孩就会烦躁不安,几个小时内无法安抚。"

  "但这个护士却注意到,如果母亲完全不来探望,孩子会处于一种相对稳定的状态,但他们可能会感到沮丧。"

  "当然我们现在知道了他们当时几乎放弃了母亲再度回来的希望。"

  "为了避免小小的痛苦,他们说谁也不应该来探望。"

  "但是孩子们那时是孤单沮丧的,所以霍桑说应该允许父母探望孩子。"

  英国皇家护理学院的执行董事长和秘书长皮特·卡特博士说帕梅拉的工作有着开创性的意义。

  "她的研究使得父母在医院病房门口将自己的孩子交到陌生人手上的日子一去不复返了。"

  "结果,现在家长和护工被视为护理方面的搭档,家长还获得了与住院的孩子待在一起的机会,这就显著地改善了家长和孩子的护理体验。"

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