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2010年全国职称英语卫生类(C级)考试真题及答案

2010-11-25 09:43   来源:外语教育网编辑整理       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

第1部分:词汇选择(第1~15题,每题1分,共15分)

  下面每个句子中均有1个词或短语有下划线,请为每处划线部分确定1个意义最为接近的选项。

  1. We've been through some rough times together.

  A. long

  B. short

  C. happy

  D. difficult

  2. She gave up her job and started writing poetry.

  A. lost

  B. created

  C. abandoned

  D. took

  3. Can you give a concrete example to support your idea?

  A. special

  B. good

  C. real

  D. specific

  4. In the process, the light energy converts to heat energy.

  A. changes

  B. drops

  C. reduces

  D. leaves

  5. The police took fingerprints and identified the body.

  A. discovered

  B. touched

  C. recognized

  D. missed

  6. If we leave now, we should miss the traffic.

  A. direct

  B. mix

  C. stop

  D. avoid

  7. It was a fascinating painting, with clever use of color and light.

  A. familiar

  B. wonderful

  C. large

  D. new

  8. I propose that we discuss this at the next meeting.

  A. suggest

  B. request

  C. demand

  D. order

  9. The company has the right to end his employment at any time.

  A. offer

  B. continue

  C. stop

  D. provide

  10. I was shocked when I saw the size of the telephone bill.

  A. excited

  B. angry

  C. lost

  D. surprised

  11. What are my chances of promotion if I stay here?

  A. retirement

  B. advertisement

  C. advancement

  D. replacement

  12. We're happy to report that business is booming this year.

  A. failing

  B. risky

  C. open

  D. successful

  13. We're seen a marked shift in our approach to the social issues.

  A. quick

  B. regular

  C. great

  D. clear

  14. The thief was finally captured two miles away from the village.

  A. found

  B. killed

  C. jailed

  D. caught

  15. Rodman met with Tony to try and settle the dispute over his contract.

  A. solve

  B. avoid

  C. mark

  D. involve

第2部分:阅读判断(第16~22题.每题1分,共7分)

  下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断:如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C。

  Breast Cancer Deaths Record Low

  The number of women dying from breast cancer has fallen to a record low by dropping under 12,000 a year for the first time since records began.

  The Cancer Research UK data showed that 11,990 women died in the UK in 2007.

  The previous lowest figure had been recorded in 1971-the year records began after which it rose steadily year by year until the late 1980s.

  Professor Peter Johnson, Cancer Research UK's chief clinician, said: "It'S incredibly encouraging to see fewer women dying from breast cancer now than at any time in the last 40 years, despite breast cancer being diagnosed more often."

  " Research has played a crucial role in this progress leading to improved treatments and better management for women with the disease."

  " The introduction of the NHS(国民保健制度) breast screening program has also contributed as women are more likely to survive the earlier cancer is diagnosed. "Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in the UK with 45 ,500 women every year diagnosed with the disease-a 50% rise in 25 years.

  The number of deaths peaked in 1989, when 15,625 women died. It then fell by between 200 and 400 deaths each year until 2004.

  There was a slight rise in 2005 and then two years of falls.

  Dr Sarah Cant, policy manager at Breakthrough Breast Cancer, said: "It is great news that fe-wer women are dying from breast cancer and highlights the impact of improved treatments, breastscreening and awareness of the disease. "

  " However, this is still too many women and incidence (发生率) of the disease is increasing year by year. "

  The rising rate of breast cancer diagnosis has been put down to a variety of factors including obesity(肥胖) and alcohol consumption.

  16. 11,990 women died from breast cancer in the UK in 2007.

  A. Right

  B. wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  17. Breast cancer deaths began to be recorded in the UK in 1971.

  A. Right

  B. wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  18. The rate of breast cancer diagnosis in the UK has been dropping.

  A. Right

  B. wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  19. Breast cancer can come back 10 years after you were first diagnosed.

  A. Right

  B. wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  20. Breast cancer is more common in the UK than in many other countries.

  A. Right

  B. wrong

  C. Not mentioned .

  21. Fewer women died from breast cancer in the UK in 2005 than in 2004.

  A. Right

  B. wrong

  C. Not mentioned

  22. Obesity and alcohol consumption may also lead to some other diseases.

  A. Right

  B. wrong

  C. Not mentioned

第3部分:概括大意与完成句子(第23~30题,每题1分,共8分)

  下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23~26题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2~5段每段选择1个最佳标题;(2)第27~30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定一个最佳选项。

  Organ Donation and Transplantation

  1 Organ donation(捐献) and transplantation(移植) refers to the process by which organs or tissues from one person are put into another person's body.

  2 The number of people needing a transplant continues to rise faster than the number of donors. About 3,700 transplant candidates are added to the national waiting list each month. Each day, about 77 people receive organ transplants. However, about 18 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.

  3 There are no age limits on who can be an organ donor. Newborns as well as senior citizens have been organ donors. If you are younger than 18, you must have a parent's or guardian's consent (同意). If you are 18 years or older, you can show you want to be an organ and tissue donor by signing a donor card.

  4 Many people think that if they agree to donate their organs, the doctor or the emergency room staff won't work as hard to save their life. This is not true. The transplant team is completely separate from the medical staff working to save your life. The transplant team does not become involved with you until doctors have determined that all possible efforts to save your life have failed.

  5 If you need an organ transplant, your doctor will help you get on the national waiting list.Your name will become part of a pool of names. When an organ donor becomes available, all the patients in the pool are compared to the donor. Factors such as blood and tissue type, size of the organ , medical urgency(紧急) of the patient's illness, time already spent on the waiting list, and distance between donor and recipient(接受者) are considered.

  23. Paragraph 2_______.

  24. Paragraph 3 _______.

  25. Paragraph 4 _______.

  26. Paragraph 5 _______.

  A. Quality of donated organ

  B. Benefits of organ donation

  C. Distribution of donated organs

  D. Quality of donor medical care

  E. Age limits of organ donation

  F. Status of organ donation and transplantation

  27. There is a great demand for _______.

  28. Organ donors range in age from newboms to_______.

  29. Doctors will try their best to save your life even if you've signed _______.

  30. Various factors are considered when deciding on _______.

  A. donated organs

  B. the national waiting list

  C. a donor card

  D. senior citizens

  E. all possible efforts

  F. the most suitable candidate

第4部分:阅读理解(第31~45题,每题3分,共45分)

  下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文回答其后面的问题,为每题确定一个最佳答案。

  第一篇

  U. S. Eats Too Much Salt

  People in the United States consume more than twice the recommended amount of salt, raising their risk for high blood pressure, heart attacks and strokes, govemment health experts said on Thursday.

  They found nearly 70 percent of U. S. adults are in high-risk groups that would benefit from a lower-salt diet of no more than l,500 mg per day, yet most consume closer to 3,500 mg per day.

  "It's important for people to eat less salt. People who adopt a heart-healthy eating pattem that includes a diet low in sodium(钠) and rich in potassium(钾) and calcium(钙) can improve their blood pressure, " Dr. Darwin Labarthe of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said in a statement.

  " People need to know their recommended daily sodium limit and take action to reduce sodium intake , " Labarthe said.

  The study in CDC's weekly report on death and disease used national survey data to show that two out of three adults should be consuming no more than l,500 mg of sodium per day because they are black or over the age of 40-which are considered high-risk groups.

  Yet studies show most people in the United States eat 3,436 mg of sodium per day, according to a 2005 - 2006 CDC estimate.

  Most of the sodium eaten comes from packaged, processed and restaurant foods. The CDC said it will join other agencies in the Health and Human Services department in working with major food manufacturers and chain restaurants to reduce sodium levels in the food supply.

  Nationwide, 16 million men and women have heart disease and 5. 8 million are estimated to have had a stroke. Cutting salt consumption can reduce these risks, the CDC said.

  31. Too much salt raises one's risk for _________.

  A. strokes

  B. heart attacks

  C. high blood pressure

  D. all of the above

  32. The recommended sodium intake for most U. S. adults is ________.

  A. closer t0 3,500 mg per day

  B. as much as 3,436 mg per day

  C. no more than l,500 mg per day

  D. less than 3,500 mg per day

  33. A heart-healthy diet is one that contains ________.

  A. a low level of sodium

  B. a lot of potassium and calcium

  C. no salt at all

  D. both A and B

  34. Nearly 70 percent of U. S. adults are in high-risk groups,________.

  A. for they are inactive

  B. for they are black or over the age of 40

  C. for they frequently eat out

  D. for they consume sodium every day

  35. Packaged, processed and restaurant foods are known to be

  A. good in taste

  B. low in price

  C. poor in nutrition

  D. high in salt

  第二篇

  Sino-Japan Animosity (敌意) Lessens

  Chinese and Japanese people view each other slightly more positively than last year, according to a survey released on Wednesday at a press conference in Beijing.

  The survey is jointly sponsored by China Daily and Genron NPO (非营利性的组织 ) , a Japanese think tank similar to the American Council on Foreign Relations. It also found overwhelming; a greement in both countries that Sino-Japanese relations were important

  The survey is a pan of the Beijing-Tokyo Forum, an annual gathering of senior govemment officials and representatives from Chinese and Japanese NGOs(非政府组织) designed to improve communication and understanding between the two countries.

  Conducted every year for five years now, the survey focused on two different groups of people:ordinary citizens, and intellectuals. In China, the intellectual group was comprised mainly of university students from well-known schools like Peking University. In Japan, the "intellectual" group was mainly made up of previous members of Genron NPO.

  Among ordinary Chinese polled, 35. 7 percent said they have "very good" or "relatively good" impressions of Japan, a 5. 5-percentage-point increase compared with last year. 45. 2 percent of Chinese students had a positive impression of Japan, two percentage points more than last year. Only 26. 6 percent of Japanese have a positive impression of China, however.

  Still, an overwhelming majority of the respondents from each country said Sino-Japanese relations were "important" and wanted their leaders to deepen talks and cooperation with each other.

  But 51. 9 percent of ordinary people and 42. 4 percent of students in China said they saw no change in relations between the two countries over the last year. In Japan, 64. 8 percent of those ordinary people and 53.4 percent of intellectuals surveyed shared the view that there was no improvement in bilateral ties this year.

  Historical issues and territorial disputes remain two major obstacles to improving bilateral relations, the survey found. What concems the Chinese most are historical issues, visits by Japanese officials to Yasukuni Shrine(靖国神社) , and the Nanjing Massacre(大屠杀) .

  Perceptions on economic and trade relations have improved, though. About 47 percent of ordinary Japanese said China had been "helpful" this year in fighting the global economic crisis, compared with just 30 percent last year. The percent of Japanese intellectuals who said Chinese economic growth was good for Japan increased from 65. 8 percent to 81.4 percent this year.

  Cooperation in East Asian issues, trade and investment, energy, and the environment and climate change top the list of common concerns that people in China and Japan want their leaders to talk about in bilateral(双边的) meetings, the survey found.

  Civil exchanges were regarded by the most people from the both countries as an important way to improve relations. 90. 7 percent of the students and 85. 7 percent of the ordinary people in China and 95. 8% of intellectuals and 74. 8% of the ordinary people in Japan viewed civil exchanges as " important" or " relatively important" .

  Chinese and Japanese both learn about each other's countries mostly through television news and newspapers, the survey found.

  36. Which of the following statements about the survey is true?

  A. The survey was conducted on Wednesday at a press conference in Beijing.

  B. The survey is jointly sponsored by China Daily, Genron NPO and the American Council on Foreign Relations.

  C. The survey found that people in both China and Japan generally agree that the relationship between the two countries is important.

  D. The survey mainly focused on two different groups of people: ordinary citizens, and the university students.

  37. According to the passage, the Beijing-Tokyo Forum .

  A. is held every year in Beijing

  B. aims at promoting communication between the two countries

  C. mainly attracts representatives from the governments of the two countries

  D. releases a survey on Sino-Japanese relation every five years

  38. In the last year,_______% of ordinary Chinese and_______% of Chinese students have a positive impression of Japan.

  A. 35.7; 45.2

  B. 51.9; 42.4

  C. 5.5; 26.6

  D. 30.2; 43.2

  39. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as the major obstacles to improving bilateral ties?

  A. Territorial disputes.

  B. Trade frictions.

  C. Visits by Japanese officials to Yasukuni Shrine.

  D. The Nanjing Massacre.

  40. The survey found that ________.

  A. most Japanese had good or relatively good impressions of China

  B. the bilateral relationship was perceived as being improved over last year by the majority of respondents from the both countries

  C. an overwhelming majority of the respondents from each country believed that the Civil exchanges were an important way to improve relations

  D. the territorial issue ranked among the top list of common concems that people in both coun tries want their leaders to talk about in bilateral meetings

  第三篇

  Holding on to hope may not make patients happier as they deal with chronic illness or diseases, according to a new study by University of Michigan Health System researchers.

  " Hope is an important part of happiness, " said Peter A. Ubel M. D. , director of the U-M Center for Behavioral and Decision Sciences in Medicine and one of the authors of the happily hopeless study, "but there's a dark side of hope. Sometimes, if hope makes people put off getting on with their life, it can get in the way of happiness. "

  The results showed that people do not adapt well to situations if they are believed to be shortterm. Ubel and his co-authors-both from U-M and Carnegie Mellon University-studied patients who had new colostomies: their colons were removed and they had to have bowel movements in a pouch that lies outside their body.

  At the time they received their colostomy, some patients were told that the colostomy was reversible-that they would undergo a second operation to reconnect their bowels after several months. Others were told that the colostomy was permanent and that they would never have normal bowel function again. The second group-the one without hope-reported being happier over the next six months than those with reversible colostomies.

  " We think they were happier because they got on with their lives. They realized the cards they were dealt, and recognized that they had no choice but to play with those cards, " says Ubel, who is also a professor in the Department of Internal Medicine.

  "The other group was waiting for their colostomy to be reversed, " he added. "They contrastedtheir current life with the life they hoped to lead, and didn't make the best of their current situation. "

  " Hopeful messages may not be in the best interests of the patient and may interfere with the patient's emotional adaptation, " Ubel says. "I don't think we should take hope away. But I think we have to be careful about building up people's hope so much that they put off living their lives. "

  41 Chronically ill patients may be happier ________.

  A. if they keep thinking of their past

  B. if they believe they'll recover

  C. if they put off moving on

  D. if they manage to get on with their life

  42 What had happened to the patients under study?

  A. They had just survived an accident.

  B. They had just had an operation.

  C. They had just injured their colons.

  D. They had just made some pouches.

  43 One group of the patients was happier because ________.

  A. they made the best of their current situation

  B. they were good at playing function

  C. they regarded normal bowel function

  D. they were promised another operation

  44 The other group was not as happy because ________.

  A. they accepted their current situation

  B. they were anxious to get better

  C. they missed their previous life

  D. they refused to play cards

  45 What could be the message of the passage?

  A. Giving up hope means giving up happiness.

  B. Letting go of hope is at times a better choice.

  C. Hope is what makes people move on.

  D. Hope frequently gets in the way of happiness.

第5部分:补全短文(第46~50题,每题2分,共10分)

  下面的短文有5处空白,短文后有6个句子,其中5个取自短文,请根据短文内容将其分别放回原有位置,以恢复文章原貌。

  Houses of the Future

  What will houses be like in thirty years' time? No one really knows, but architects are trying topredict. _______(46)

  Future houses will have to be flexible. In thirty years' time even more of us will be working from home. So we will have to be able to use areas of the houses for work for part of the day and for living for the rest. Families grow and change with children arriving growing up and leaving home. ________(47) Nothing will be as fixed as it is now. The house will always be changing to meet changing needs.

  Everyone agrees that in thirty years' time we will be live in "intelligent" houses. We will be able to talk to our kitchen and discuss with them what to do. Like this, "We'll be having a party this weekend. What food shall we cook?" ________.(48) We will be able to leave most of the cooking to the machines, just tasting things from time to time to check.

  The house of the future will be personal-each house will be different. _______(49) You won't have to paint them-you'll be able to tell the wall to change the color! And you don't like the color the next day, you'll be able to have a new one. _______(50)

  A. What will our home be like then?

  B. And the machine will tell us that food we will have to buy and how to cook it.

  C. You will be able to change the color of the wall easily.

  D. The only thing you won't be able to do is move the house somewhere else!

  E. The house of the future will have to grow and change with the family.

  F. The kid might take their bedrooms with them as they leave.

第6部分:完形填空(第51~65题,每题1分,共15分)

  下面的短文有15处空白,请根据短文的内容为每处空白处确定一个最佳选项。

  Swine Flu in New York

  The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has confirmed cases of swine _______(51)in eight students at a New York preparatory(预科的) school, Mayor Michael Bloomberg said Sunday. The students have had only _______(52) symptoms and none have been hospitalized, he said. Some of the students have already recovered.

  More than 100 students were absent from _______(53) due to flu-like symptoms last week.New York health officials tested samples for eight students Saturday and determined the students were probably _______(54) from swine flu, and the CDC confirmed the _______(55) on Sunday, Bloomberg said.

  The announcement brings the _______(56) of confirmed swine flu cases in the United States to 20. Bloomberg said there is no _______(57) of a citywide outbreak(爆发) of the flu, and no sign of a potential outbreak of swine flu at _______(58) schools.

  Some students at the school _______(59) spring break in Mexico, Bloomberg said, but authorities have not determined _______(60) any of the students with a confirmed case of swine flu was in Mexico. Someone who traveled to Mexico may not have had any flu symptoms but _______(61) on the flu to someone else, he noted.

  Bloomberg called on students who are home sick to _______(62) home for 48 hours after their symptoms subside.

  If symptoms are normal for a regular kind of flu, there is _______(63) need to go to a hospital, said Bloomberg. If symptoms become severe, as _______(64) any illness, people should go to the hospital, he said.

  St. Francis, which has 2,700 students, announced it will remain closed for two days._______(65) whether the students' illnesses have been minor because they're young and healthy or because it is a minor strain of the virus, Frieden responded, "We don't know. "

  51. A. fever B. cold C. sickness D. flu

  52. A. severe B. mild C. physical D. typical

  53. A. hospital B. school C. work D. home

  54. A. recovering B. learning C. escaping D. suffering

  55. A. choice B. treatment C. diagnosis D. doubt

  56. A. number B. spread C. size D. amount

  57. A. chance B. sign C. news D. hope

  58. A. much B. other C. another D. few

  59. A. traveled B. closed C. spent D. lasted

  60. A. why B. whether C. how D. when

  61. A. passed B. kept C. rolled D. swept

  62. A. return B. stay C. leave D. go

  63. A. no B. some C. any D. great

  64. A. upon B. with C. along D. down

  65. A. Told B. Tested C. Greeted D. Asked

参考答案:

  第1部分:词汇选项

  1. D[解析]rough意为粗糙的、艰苦的,rough time指困难时刻,与difficult time意思一样。long意为长的;short意为短的;happy意为幸福的,与rough意义相反。

  2. C[解析]give up是"放弃"的意思。如:In view of the circumstances,we should giveup the plan.考虑到情况的变化,我们应该放弃这项计划。abandon也是"放弃"的意思。如: After the age of about thirty he abandoned individual ambition.他一过三十就放弃了个人的雄心壮志。lost的意思是丢失;create意为创造;take意为拿。

  3. D [解析]concrete意为具体的,它的同义词是specific。如:In painting art,the expressed most specific theme and image is often the most abstract thinking.在绘画艺术中,最具体的主题和形象所表达的往往是最抽象的思想。special的意思是特殊的;good,好的;real,真的。

  4. A[解析]convert的意思是转变、改变,change也是"改变"的意思。drop的意思是掉下、落下,而短语drop in意为顺便走访,如:Can you drop in at my office?你能顺便到我办公室来一下吗?reduce是"减少"的意思;leave的意思是离开。

  5.C[解析]identify是"识别、认出"的意思。如:We must also identify and nurture newtalent.我们也必须识别和培养新的人才。recognize也是"认出"的意思。discover指发现,如: Columbus was one of the first Europeans to discover North America.哥伦布是最早发现北美洲的欧洲人之一。touch,触摸;miss,错过、想念。

  6.D[解析]该句中miss意为错过、避开,和avoid同义。direct是"指挥"的意思;mix的意思是混合;stop意为停止。

  7. B [解析]fascinating和wonderful都是极好的,奇妙的意思。familiar意为熟悉的; large意为大的;new意为新的。

  8. A[解析]propose的意思是建议,与suggest同义。request和demand意思相近,意为要求;order是"命令"的意思。propose,suggest,request和demand后的从句需要用虚拟语气,即(should)+动词原形。

  9. C[解析]end的意思是结束,终止;stop意为停止,与end意义相近。offer是提供、提议:continue意为继续:provide意为提供。

  10.D [解析]shock和surprise都有惊讶的意思。excited意为兴奋的;anger,气愤的;lost当动词时是"遗失"的意思,用作形容词,有"遗失的"或"迷惑的"之意。

  11.C[解析]promotion和advancement都是"晋升"的意思。retirement是"退休"的意思;advertisement意为广告;replacement意为替代。

  12.D [解析]booming意思是兴旺的,繁荣的。如:Port construction and investment isbooming all over the country.港口建设和投资的热潮正在全国范围内兴起。failing意为下降的;risky意为冒险的,如:Doctors say the operation is too risky.医生表示这项手术风险太大。open,开放的;successful,成功的。在该句中,successful相对其他选项更为合适。

  13.D [解析]marked意为显著的,明显的。如:What is your most marked characteristic?你本身最显著的特点是什么?clear也是"清晰的、明显的"意思。quick的意思是快速的;regular,定期的,整齐的;great,伟大的。

  14.D [解析]captured,捕获,抓住,与caught同义。found意为发现;killed意为杀死; jailed意为监禁。

  15.A[解析]settle the dispute的意思是解决纠纷。同义的选项是solve。avoid意为避免,如:We must take measures to avoid the traffic accidents.我们必须采取措施避免发生交通事故。mark意为做标记;involve,卷入、陷入。和involve有关的短语有involved in卷入……;involve with涉及,和……有关。

  第2部分:阅读判断

  16.A[解析]第二段说The Cancer Research UK data showed that 11,990 women died in the UK in 2007.结合第一段可知,此句中的妇女死亡人数指死于乳腺癌的人数。所以本句正确。

  17.A[解析]由第三段The previous lowest figure had been recorded in 197l-the year records began after which it rose steadily year by year until the late 1980s.可知本句正确。

  18.B [解析]第四段最后说"beast cancer being diagnosed more often",因此该句是错误的。

  19.C [解析]通读全文,没有提到本句的相关信息,选C。

  20.C[解析]文中第七段提到Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in the UK,但并未和其他国家进行比较,因此,本句Breast cancer is more common in the UK than in many othercountries.是否正确无法从文章中判断,选C。

  21.B [解析]从第八段The number of deaths peaked in 1989,when 15,625 women died. It then fell by between 200 and 400 deaths each year until 2004.和第九段There was a slight risein 2005 and then two years offalls.可以判断出该句是错误的。

  22.C [解析]最后一段说obesity(肥胖)and alcohol consumption是诱发乳腺癌的原因之一,但并未提及其他疾病,因此选C。put down to的意思是"归因于"。

  参考译文

  乳腺癌死亡率创新低

  妇女死于乳腺癌的记录已经下降到了历史最低,一年中死于乳腺癌的人数降到不足12000人,这是有史第一次。

  英国癌症研究中心的数据显示,2007年英国妇女死于乳腺癌的人数是11990。

  先前的最低点是在1971年,即开始做该统计的那一年。之后,直到20世纪80年代末期,死亡率逐年攀升。

  英国癌症研究中心的首席临床医师彼得·约翰逊教授说:"虽然被诊断为乳腺癌的病例越来越常见,但是看到死于乳腺癌的女性比过去40年的任何时候都少真是令人欢欣鼓舞。"

  "科学研究在对女性患者进行更有效地治疗和更好地管理的过程中起到了至关重要的作用。"

  "国民保健制度乳腺扫描计划的引进也做出了贡献,因为早期诊断出的癌症患者更容易生存下来。"

  在英国,乳腺癌是现在的最常见的癌症,每年有45500位女性被诊断出患乳腺癌--这个数字在25年中增加了50%。

  死亡的人数在1989年达到最高--15625位妇女死亡。接着死亡人数每年减少200到400人,这持续到2004年。

  这一数学在2005年有轻微的上升,然后是两年的下降。

  "突破乳腺癌"的政策经理莎拉·肯特博士说:"越来越少的妇女死于乳腺癌,对改善治疗,乳腺扫描和疾病意识的影响力的着重强调,都是令人振奋的消息。"

  "然而.仍然有很多妇女患病,这种疾病的发生率仍在逐年增加。"

  不断上升的乳腺癌发生率归因于多种因素,其中包括肥胖和饮酒。 外&语教育网编辑整理

  第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

  23.F [解析]第二段中提到需要器官移植的人增加的速度远远大于器官捐献者。每月有3700人加入等候者的行列。但每天只有77人接受器官移植。每天有18人在等待中死亡。 这些都是讲目前器官捐献和移植的状况,因此选择F。

  24.E[解析]第三段第一句"There are no age limits on who can donate."就说明此段和捐献者的年龄有关。因此选E。

  25.D [解析]第四段的中心是捐献者不必为他们的医疗担心,他们的医疗同样有保障。因此选D。

  26.C [解析]第五段讲确定器官接受者的因素,也就是如何决定捐赠的器官给哪个患者。因此选C。

  27.A [解析]从第二段可以看出A是正确答案There is a great demand for donated olgans.

  28.D[解析]从第三段第二句"Newborns as well as senior citizens have been organ donors."得出正确答案是D。

  29.C [解析]结合选项,从搭配上看sign后面只能跟a donor card。从文章中第四段The transplant team does not become involved with you until doctors have determined that all possible efforts to save vour life have failed.也能看出答案是C。

  30.F[解析]最后一段说When an organ donor becomes available,all the patients in the pool are compared to the donor.Factors such as blood and tissue type……are considered.因此F是正确答案。

  参考译文

  器官捐赠和移植

  器官捐赠和移植是指把一个人的器官或组织移入另一个人的身体的过程。

  一直以来,需要器官移植的人数比捐助者的人数增加的速度快。每个月约有3700名等候移植者被添加到全国等候移植的名单中。每天大约有77人接受器官移植。然而,由于缺乏捐献器官而无法进行移植的等候者中,每天有18人死亡。

  器官捐献者没有年龄限制。新生儿以及老年人都可以成为器官捐献者。如果你的年龄未满18岁,那么你必须得到家长或监护人的同意。如果你的年龄在18岁以上,你可以签署捐赠卡,以表明你愿意成为器官和组织的捐赠者。

  许多人认为如果他们同意捐赠器官,医生或急诊室的医务人员就不会如不捐赠那样努力来挽救他们的生命了。事实并非如此。移植团队和拯救你生命的医务人员是完全分离的。移植团队不会和你打交道,除非医生确定所有可能挽救你生命的努力都已经失败了。

  如果你需要器官移植,你的医生会帮助你进入全国等待移植的名单中。你的名字将被加在一批人的名字当中。当器官捐献者出现时,在这批名单中的所有患者都会和捐献者比对。

  很多因素会被考虑,如血液和组织类型,器官的大小,患者的病情是否紧急,等候的时间,捐赠者和接受者之间的距离。

  第4部分:阅读理解

  第一篇

  31.D [解析]由第一段的People in the United States consume more than twice the recom. mended amount of salt,raising their risk flor high blood pressure,heart attacks and strokes,government health experts said on Thursday.可知,A、B、C都出现了,因此选D。

  32.C[解析]由第二段中…would benefit from a lower-salt diet of no more than 1,500 mgper day和第五段中…should be consuming no more than 1,500 mg of sodium per day…可知,每天钠的摄入量不应超过1500毫克。因此选C。

  33.D[解析]文章第三段说到People who adopt a heart-healthy eating pattern that includes a diet low in sodium(钠)and rich in potassium(钾)and calcium(钙)can improve theirblood pressure,因此D是正确答案。

  34.B [解析]第五段提到…they are black or over the age of 40-which are consideredhigh-risk groups,因此选B。

  35.D[解析]第七段说Most of the sodium eaten comes from packaged,processed and restaurant foods.因此选择D。

  参考译文

  美国人食盐量过多

  周二,政府部门的健康专家表示,美国人的食盐量比推荐食用量的两倍还多,这增加了他们罹患高血压、心脏病以及中风的危险。

  健康专家发现近七成的美国成年人属于高危人群,如果他们每天的食盐量不超过1500毫克,则会从中受益,然而大多数美国成年人的日食盐量接近3500毫克。

  疾病预防控制中心的达尔文·拉巴德博士在一份声明中谈到:"少吃盐对人们很重要。采用低钠、高钾、高钙的饮食方式有助于维持心脏健康、改善血压情况。"

  拉巴德说:"人们需要了解推荐日食钠量的限制并采取措施减少钠的摄入量。"

  疾病预防控制中心每周公布的死亡和疾病的研究报告采用了全国普查的数据,结果显示三分之二成年人的日食钠量均不应超过1500毫克,因为他们是被视为高危人群的黑人或者年龄超过40岁的人。

  然而,据疾病预防控制中心2005年到2006年的估计,美国大多数人的日食钠量为3436毫克。

  大多数食用钠都来自于袋装的、加工过的食品和餐厅食品。疾病预防控制中心称其将和美国卫生与公共服务部的其他部门一道联手主要食品生产商和连锁餐厅来降低食品供应中的钠含量。

  疾病预防控制中心称,全国已有1600万人罹患心脏病,估计还有580万人已患中风。减少食盐量可以使患这些疾病的风险降低。

  第二篇

  36.C [解析]从第二段最后一句话可知,中日两国民众普遍认为两国之间的关系很重要。

  37.B[解析]第三段明确表示,论坛的宗旨是为了增进两国之间的沟通和理解。

  38.D [解析]第五段中说本年度普通中国人和大学生中对日本印象较好的人所占比例分别为35.7%和45.2%,分别比上一年度增长5.5个百分点和2个百分点,因此可以计算出去年普通中国人和大学生对日本持积极态度的百分比分别为30.2%和43.2%。

  39.B[解析]第八段列出了阻碍中日关系正常发展的主要障碍,分别是领土争端和历史问题,后者包括南京大屠杀和日本领导人参拜靖国神社。贸易摩擦则没有提及。

  40.C [解析]从倒数第二段提供的数据可知,中日两国大多数人认为民间交往是促进两国关系发展的重要途径。

  参考译文

  中日敌意减少

  根据周三在北京举行的记者招待会发布的调查显示,较之去年,中日人民对待彼此的态度稍微积极了一些。

  这项调查是由《中国日报》和Grenron共同负责的,Genron是日本一家非营利性组织,类似于美国外交关系委员会。它也曾压倒性地赞同中日两国关系很重要。

  这项调查是北京一东京论坛的一部分。北京一东京论坛是一个中日两国高级政府官员或非政府组织代表们会面的年会,旨在推动两国间的相互理解和交流

  这项调查每年实施一次,现在已经是第五年了。它主要关注两类人群:普通市民和知识分子。在中国被调查的知识分子主要是像北京大学这样的知名大学的大学生们。而在日本的"知识分子"群体则主要是由非营利组织Genron的前任成员组成的。

  被调查的中国普通市民中有35.7%的人认为他们对日本的印象是"很好"或是"相对较好",比去年增长了5.5个百分点。45.2%的中国学生对日本有好感,比去年增加了2个百分点。但是,却只有26.6%的日本人对中国有好感。

  但是,两国代表中仍然有压倒性的多数人认为中日关系一直"很重要",并且期待两国领导们能相互加强对话和合作。

  但是,在中国有51.9%的普通人群和42.4%的学生认为他们在过去的一年里没有看到两国关系的任何变化。在日本有64.8%的普通人群和53.4%的知识分子认为今年中日双边关系没有任何进展。

  调查显示,历史问题和领土依然是推动两国双边关系的两大主要壁垒。中国人最关注的问题有历史问题:日本官员参拜靖国神社以及南京大屠杀。

  不过,两国在经济和贸易关系的认识上有了改进。大约有47%的日本普通民众认为今年中国人在对抗全球经济危机上有很大的帮助,相比较而言,去年这一比率仅有30%。日本知识分子中认为中国经济的发展有利于日本的比率从去年的65.8%上升到今年的81.4%。

  调查发现,两国在东亚事务、贸易和投资、能源以及环境和气候变化方面的合作是中日两国人民最关心的,他们期待两国领导人在双边会议上能够就此加强对话。

  两国大多数人民普遍认为民间交往是改善两国关系的重要途径。中国90.7%的学生和85.7%的普通民众以及日本95.8%的知识分子和74.8%的普通民众都认为民间交往"很重要"或是"相对重要"。

  调查还发现,中国和日本都是主要通过电视新闻和报纸相互了解彼此。 外&语教育网编辑整理

  第三篇

  41.D [解析]第二段的最后一句sometimes,if hope makes people put off getting on withtheir life,it can get in the way of happiness.有时候,如果希望使人们不能适应自己的生活,那么希望就会阻碍幸福。也就是说,当人们能适应自己的生活时,就会更幸福。第五段也提到We think they weree happier because they got on with their lives. 因此选D。

  42.B [解析]第三段说…studied patients who had Dew colostomies…,colostomy是结肠造口手术。因此B是正确答案。

  43.A [解析]第五段说觉得幸福的那组"we think tlaey were happier because they got onwith their lives."第六段说不幸福的那组"They contrasted their current life with the life they hopedto lead,and didn't make the best of their current situation."因此觉得幸福的原因是A。

  44.B [解析]答案所在段是第六段"The other group was waiting for tIleir colostomy to bereversecl."he added."Tlaey contrastecl their current life with the life they hoped to lead,and didn'tmake the best of tlaeir Current situation."由此可见,不幸福的原因是B。

  45.B [解析]该题目是文章主旨题。本文的中心是说希望不一定都能带来幸福,要能面对现实,适应不幸,才会更幸福。A和c都与本文主旨不符。D中frequently(经常地)使用不当。B符合本文主题。

  参考译文

  密歇根州立大学卫生系统研究人员的一个研究表明,对慢性病人来说,抱有希望或许并不能使病人更快乐。

  行为与决策医学U-M中心主任,快乐无望研究的作者之一,Peter A.ubel M.D说:"希望是快乐的一个重要部分,但是希望有一个灰暗面。有时候,如果希望使人们不能适应自己的生活,那么希望就会阻碍幸福。"

  这个结果显示,如果人们认为目前的处境是短期的,人们就不容易适应它。来自卡内基梅隆大学的Ubel和他的合作者研究刚做完结肠造口术的病人发现,他们的结肠被移除,并且他们不得不排便于一个身体外面的袋子里。

  在他们做结肠造口术的时候,一些病人被告知这个手术是可逆的--他们将在数月后接受第二次手术,重新建立正常的大便通道。而另外一些病人被告知这个手术是永久的,他们以后将再也没有正常的大便功能。报道称,第二组,就是没有希望的那组,在之后的六个多月里比要做可逆结肠造口术的那组更快乐。

  身兼内科医学通讯员教授的ubel说:"我们认为第二组比较快乐是因为他们适应了自己的生活。他们认识到自己手里的牌,并且知道除了玩这些牌没有其他选择余地。"

  他同时补充道:"第一组在等待他们的结肠造口手术被扭转,他们总是拿现在的生活和他们想要的生活作比较,没有很好地适应现在的情况。"

  Ubel说:"希望不一定给患者带来最大的利益,它可能会干扰患者情绪的适应性,我认为我们不该放弃希望。但是我们在帮助别人建立希望时应该倍加小心,如果希望过大,他们就不能过真正属于自己的生活。"

  第5部分:补全短文

  46.A[解析]该空格的前一句…architects are trying to predict(the houses of the future),从第二段起是对未来房子的描述。此处填"What will our home be like then?"最为合适,起到承上启下的作用。

  47.E[解析]根据第二段内容,可以看出此处需要填的内容和"grow and claange withthe family"有关,因此选E。

  48.B [解析]第三段讲未来的厨房是智能的,我们可以和厨房里的机器交谈,因此选B。

  49.C[解析]这一段讲房子可以自己改变颜色,所以C是正确答案。

  50.D[解析]选项F放在此处显得唐突,因为文章没有对卧室进行描写。而选项D是对未来房子整体上的描述,适合做为文章的最后一句话。

  参考译文

  未来的房子

  三十多年后的房子会是什么样?没有人真的知道,但是建筑师正在试图预测。那么我们的房子将会是什么样的呢?

  未来的房子要灵活。三十年后,更多的人会在家里办公。所以我们必须能够使用房子的一部分办公,另一部分用于生活。随着孩子的出生、成长和离开家,家庭情况也会随之发展、变化。未来的房子要能和家庭一起发展、变化。没有什么会像现在一样固定下来。房子将总是在变化,以满足变化中的需求。

  每个人都同意:再过30年,我们将生活在"智能"房子中。我们将能够跟我们的厨房里的机器交谈,和它们讨论做什么饭。像这样,"我们要在周末举行晚会。做什么食物好?"机器就会告诉我们该买什么食物,怎样做。我们可以把大部分的烹饪工作交给机器,只要不时品尝、检查食物就好了。

  未来的房屋将是个人的--每个房子都会不同。你可以轻而易举地改变墙的颜色。你不必去粉刷它们--你可以告诉墙,让它自己改变颜色!如果第二天你不喜欢这颜色了,你可以再换一个新颜色。你唯一不能做的是把房子搬到其他地方去!

  第6部分:完形填空

  51.D [解析]猪流感是swine flu。文中出现过多次。

  52.B[解析]从上下文得知,患病的学生中没有人住院,有一些已经康复,因此他们的症状应该是比较轻的。所以选B。

  53.B[解析]学校里的学生有了流感样的症状,肯定是没能上学。

  54.D[解析]从上下文可以看出,纽约卫生官员检验了8名学生的血样后断定他们很可能是患上了猪流感。suffer from意为患……病。

  55.C [解析]疾病防控中心对纽约卫生官员的诊断予以证实。diagnosis是"诊断"的意思。

  56.A [解析]显然此处应为确诊的猪流感患者数量the number of confirmed swine fluCases。

  57.B [解析]从上文和接下来的"no sign"就可以推断出此处应为同样的表达方式。sign意为迹象。

  58.B [解析]其他学校没有爆发猪流感的迹象。

  59.C [解析]学校的一些学生是在墨西哥度的春假。spring break指春假。"度假"用动词spend。

  60.B [解析]从上下文可知,当局尚未确定被确诊为猪流感的学生中是否有谁去过墨西哥。

  61.A[解析]从上下文可知,某位去墨西哥旅游的学生自己可能没有表现出任何流感症状,但却把流感传给了其他人。

  62.B [解析]生病在家的学生在症状消退后,继续在家观察48小时。stay home呆在家里。

  63.A[解析]接下来一句说,如果症状严重,人们应该去医院。这是一个转折句,因此前面的句子应该相反,即没有必要上医院。There is no:need to do sth.没必要做某事。

  64.B [解析]as with的意思是"和……一样;正如"。

  65.D [解析]从后面的"responded"一词可以推断出前面应该是"被问到",即"Asked"。

  参考译文

  纽约甲型H1Nl流感

  纽约市长迈克尔·布隆伯格周日称,疾病预防控制中心已经证实来自纽约一所预备学校的八名学生感染甲型N1H1流感。他说这几名学生只是有轻微症状,没有一名被送往医院。部分学生已经痊愈。

  布隆伯格说,上周100多名学生因类似该流感的症状而不能上学。纽约市卫生官员周六对8名学生的血样进行了检验,得出结论:这几名学生很可能患有猪流感,疾病预防控制中心周日证实了这一诊断。

  公告将美国确诊的猪流感病例的数字上升到20例。布隆伯格说,现在并没有爆发全市流感的迹象,也没有迹象表明潜在甲型H1N1流感会在其他学校爆发。

  布隆伯格说,这所学校的一些学生在墨西哥度过了春假,但是美国当局并不确定这些被确诊患有猪流感的学生中是否有人在墨西哥度过春假。去过墨西哥的人可能并没有任何的流感症状,但却把流感传给了别人。

  布隆伯格号召生病在家的学生在症状消退后,继续在家观察48小时。

  布隆伯格说,如果症状属于普通流感,就没有必要去医院。如果症状加重,就如患有任何疾病一样,病人必须去医院就诊。

  拥有2700名学生的圣弗朗西斯宣布将封校两天。当被问到学生的病症较轻是因为他们年轻健康还是因为感染的是一种轻微病菌时,布隆伯格回应道:"我们不得而知。"

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