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2012年3月上海中级口译真题及答案

2012-06-04 10:24
  Music affects us as profoundly as anything we experience. Very many people say that music is a big part of their everyday life. We can hear evidence of this in the blurring car radio and see the jogger with his personal stereo. That is the new portability of music. That brings it everywhere people live, play and work.
  There are different kinds of music , for all tastes – classical, pop, rock, rap, jazz, folk – each culture has its own style. Different parts of the body resonate to different sounds and pitches, and most significantly, certain kinds of music resound powerfully in the human spirit.
  We can listen to music anywhere and everywhere.
  Listening to music can change your mood – sometimes dramatically. Sometimes, if you’re feeling low, it’s tempting to play slow sad music, but this would make you feel worse. And lifting tune or cheerful song can instantly improve your energy levels and your emotional well being.
  Music in film and television shows us how music can affect mood. A romantic drama would have a very different film score to a thriller. The old “silent” films originally had a pianist in the cinema playing along, trying to strike the right mood. At times, when watching a film or TV programme, you know what’s about to happen because of the music being played – you can anticipate the terror, such as in “Jaws”. There’re many times when I’ve turn down the sound during a TV programme and use subtitles because the music unsettles means so much.
  Playing Mozart when studying is said to increase our IQ. A recent study has showed that children who learn a musical instrument are much quicker at developing spatial awareness and problem solving skills.
  Relaxation music has a slow rhythm. Sounds are often synthesised and there may be added natural sounds, such as whalesong, birdsong, waves or gentle rain to help produce a feeling of calm and relaxation.
  点评:这是一篇关于各种音乐与人之间的关系的文章。音乐在现今社会因为移动终端设备而变得在生活中无时不在,无处不在。不同的音乐对人的精神和情绪影响也各有不同。悲伤时,如果我们听慢调而悲伤的音乐,我们会更悲伤。而那些快乐的歌曲则能让我们的情绪迅速恢复过来。电影和电视剧中的音乐同样能够影响我们的情绪,例如恐怖片和浪漫爱情片的音乐是如此不同,另外还举了默片时代的音乐以及看电影电视剧时我们配着背景音乐时会做出的一些反应。最后谈到研究表明音乐能提高智商。舒缓的音乐节奏缓慢。同时,音乐中越来越多地加入原生态、大自然的元素来帮住人们获得更多平静和放松。
  文章属于考生日常生活中都会接触到的娱乐休闲类的话题,正如文中所说,音乐在我们现今的社会无时、无处不在,相信考生对文中谈及的音乐及其作用都感同身受,从而能够比较轻松地完成这篇听写题目。  1. My computer doesn’t seem to be working. I have lots of e-mail letters that I have to reply this afternoon. can I use the one over there on the desk?
  2. We had little choice about when to send the bidding documents. Yesterday was too soon to send it, and tomorrow will be too late.
  3. Alice has been offered the manager’s job. Although she has hardly any relevant working experience, this is a big surprise even for herself.
  4. You can learn something about a place by reading a travel book. But you will be more interested and more fascinated when you actually travel there.
  5. There are many challenges we face today, but time permits me to concentrate on only one question. That is where shall we get the money for our new investment project?
  6. I regret to say that we are still unable to send the goods you ordered. But we’d like to emphasize that the delay is entirely due to the circumstances beyond our control.
  7. Rather than taking a chance on being grounded at the airport because of the impending strike, we decided to take the slower but surer route and arrived at Kansas City.
  8. Sally turned down both the auditor’s job and the local school accountant job. The former involved working in the city, and the latter offered a very low pay.
  9. A number of houses along the elevated subway route have been torn down, so as to make room for two new highways that are being built.
  10. Today, it is as difficult for us to imagine family life without information technology as it would have been for our parents to imagine family life without electricity.
  评析:10个statements主要还是以商务英语为主。这些句子是我们在商务口语对话,商务信函中常碰到的。难度不大,生词也不多。
  Talks and Conversations 1
  M: May I help you?
  W: Yes, I want to buy some shoes to replace the ones I am wearing.
  M: What’s wrong with them?
  W: They are too old and shabby.
  M: I can see they have simply been worn out. Would you like the same color? More or less?
  W: Yes, and something a little less casual.
  M: How about this light brown pair? They are similar to what you have, but a little bit dressier.
  W: Yes. I was thinking of something along that line. I will try them on.
  M: They certainly look charming.
  W: The trouble is, they feel uncomfortable.
  M: Then try on this other pair in the similar style, but by a different manufacturer.
  W: These are much better, do you have the main red?
  M: Yes, would you like both pairs?
  W: Yes, if they won’t cost too much.
  M: Oh, no. They won’t. The second pair is half price. Shall I put them both in a box for you?
  W: Just the red and the old ones. I wear the new brown pair home.
  Questions:
  11. What did the woman’s shoes look like?
  12. What was wrong with the first pair of shoes the woman tried on?
  13. How many pairs of shoes did the woman buy?
  14. Which shoes did the woman wear home?
  点评:这段对话是女士买鞋子的场景。整体上来说,全篇没有难词,比较容易混淆的是对细节的考查。比如女士试了几双鞋,买了几双,为什么没有买,穿着哪双回家了等等,在听的时候学员注意排除干扰项,记下细节。
  Talks and Conversations 2
  I lived in a dread for a whole year, and I have to be honest and say that at first I wasn’t very happy. You see, I was homesick, I missed my family and I just wanted to go home. Part of the problem was my Spanish. I couldn’t communicate very well. But I love to eat, and that’s what really saved me. You see, once I discovered Tapas … oh ,let me explain — these delicious appetizers you eat. So I made some Spanish friends and we’d go out to Tapas bars. So I got to eat a lot of delicious food. And of course, my Spanish improved dramatically as well. But there was one thing that was difficult to adjust to, and that was that dinner was always served at a late hour. I wasn’t used to eating at eleven at night.
  Questions:
  15. How long did the woman live in a dread?
  16. Which of following partially explains why the woman was so homesick at first?
  17. What did the woman particularly like?
  18. According to the woman, which was the thing that was difficult to adjust to?
  点评:这篇小谈话谈论的是留学生活。女主人公先是谈到自己刚来西班牙时的恐惧状况,然后谈了自己因喜欢西班牙的食物,从而摆脱了不能用西班牙语交流造成的这种恐惧状况。最后她指出,她仍然不习惯西班牙很晚吃饭的习惯。
  总体而言,本文比较简单。可能本文中一开篇出现的dread(恐惧、惧怕)一词会困扰部分考生,但其实根据整篇文章,并不难理解其词义。除此以外,针对文章的考查点,并无生僻词。这就提醒考生不要死抠某个单词,而影响整篇短文的把握。
  Talks and Conversations 3
  M: Mrs. Dereal, can you tell us something about further and continuous education in Britain?
  W: Further and continuous education in Britain can be of different kinds. Apart from the world famous Open University, there are other colleges that can provide programs of further education for adults students.
  M: We are all quite familiar with the Open University, what about the other colleges?
  W: Well, first there are the Polytechnics. The Polytechnics are colleges or institutions of further education. They are study centers that offer many different courses for students of all ages. These courses lead to Diplomats or to Degrees awarded by the Council for National Academic Awards, which was set up to award Degrees to adult students in non-university institutions.
  M: And then what about Non-Degree courses for adult students?
  W: Second, there are specialist colleges, such as the Agricultural Colleges, Colleges of Art or Music and so on. There are also a large number of local colleges of further education: Technical Colleges and Colleges of Commerce. All these special colleges provide a variety of Non-Degree courses for adult students.
  M: What about the courses? Are they specially designed for adult students?
  W: Courses for adult students may also be vocational or recreational. That is, they may be related to a person’s job or taken purely for interest and pleasure. Examples of popular recreational classes are pottery, woodwork, car maintenance, cookery and so on. At the same time, university lecturers may give up some of their free time every week to talk to town and village clubs about anything from archeology to the sociological effects of the industrial revolution.
  Questions:
  19. What is the topic of the interview?
  20. What are the polytechnics?
  21. According to the interviewee, what is a vocational course?
  22. Which of the following is not a subject for recreational classes?
  点评:本段讲的是英国的各种成人进修和继续教育体制,总体难度适中。文章从不同的学校类型入手,分别介绍高职院校、专修学校的课程设置、学位授予等方面,以及职业型和娱乐型教育课程。题目设置基本进口每部分开头的介绍,而22题也考察了学生对细节和举例的把握。
  Talks and Conversations 4
  As a normal person, you see colors everywhere, so long as you have good eyesight. In fact, color plays a central role in our life. For example, color is used to communicate life-saving information. To the driver of a vehicle, the green color means “go”, and the red color means “stop”. You should always pull up when the traffic light turns red. Besides, colors can irritate or soothe your eyes, raise your appetite, or even change your mood. A delicious meal with appropriate colors can certainly make your mouth watering. Good colors also help us in many other ways. Statistics show, that in sports competition a team wearing red has a higher chance of winning. Of course, it’s largely due to the psychology of wearing red. Luck and ability can be more important.
  For animals, color reflects their environments and their characteristics. For instance, a male peacock has its tail feathers of bright colors to win the attention of female peacocks. A tree frog can be so green as to indicate its poisonous nature. So don’t eat it, or you might die. A wasp, with its bright yellow color, may warn us that it has a sting, and it is not afraid to use that sting. People often think that rainbow is the most colorful, but for our artists, all they need are three colors, namely, red, blue and yellow. They are called the primary colors——colors that cannot be made by mixing others together. And our artists can mix them together to create any color in the rainbow, and hundreds of other shades in making art.
  Questions:
  23. Why are green and red colors important to drivers?
  24. According to statistics, what team has a higher chance of winning in sports competition?
  25. which animal has green color that warns us of its poisonous nature?
  26. what is a primary color?
  点评:本篇文章探讨了关于颜色的话题。颜色在我们生活中扮演了很重要的角色,既可用于交通中给司机传达指令,又可在日常生活中发挥其他的作用。此外,颜色对于动物来说也很重要。有的动物利用颜色来吸引雌性;而有的动物则利用身上的颜色来警告其他动物禁止侵犯。虽然在我们眼里,颜色是多种多样的,但是所有的 颜色都来源自三种颜色:红、蓝和黄。文章内容贴近我们现实生活,文中也并没有出现很多生词。考生只需要适当地做些笔记,结合平常的生活常识,在听的过程中即可选出正确答案。
  Talks and Conversations 5
  W: Of course, we ought to be permitted to think, speak, and feel as we like, provided we don’t do any harm to anyone else.
  M: How do you know when you are doing harm or not?Would you permit people to take drugs, for example?
  W: That depends on the drugs, some of them can be harmful in all sorts of ways, like too much drink and smoking as many cigarettes as you do.
  M: Well, I have been trying to give up smoking for a long time. But you know, it’s not easy. And I’m afraid I don’t have that strong will.
  W: I think the government should banned smoking in all the public places and they should levy heavier taxes on selling and buying cigarettes.
  M: What really makes me mad is the attitude toward morals. Some people are really shocked, because in the theaters today actors are allowed to walk about the stage with little or without any clothes on. And they think it’s right that the police should be able to walk into our galleries and decide whether pictures are works of art or obscene. But the same people aren’t shocked by advertisements which persuaded the public to buy things which can do real harm, like cigarettes and alcohol, for example. I think a lot of advertisements are much more immoral than so-called pornographic or dirty plays and books. Because they lie, or at least disguise the truth.
  W: How do you know that pornographic pictures in books don’t do harm?
  M: I didn’t say they did no harm, I’m just suggesting that the whole question of morality is relative. I think the behavior of some businessman is relative more immoral than that of some of the young people they criticize.
  W: You seem to think that everything will be alright if you just allow people to be natural. I personally feel we all need some kind of outside authority to help us discipline ourselves.
  Questions:
  27. What has the man been trying to do for a long time?
  28. According to the man, what things can do real harm to people?
  29. Why does the man think that advertisements are much more immoral than dirty place and books?
  30. According to the woman, what do we need to discipline ourselves?
  点评:此对话主要是谈论哪些行为是会对他人造成伤害。女士认为烟酒对他人造成极大伤害,因此国家应该禁止公众场合的吸烟行为或者征收更多的税,而男士却认为只要不过量,烟酒就不会造成伤害。男士认为人们的道德观会对他人造成极大伤害,并以人们对现代艺术和广告的虚假信息两种事物的态度来举例说明。最后,女士总结男士的观点是人们应顺其自然地要求自我,而女士的观点则是希望通过外界的权威来约束自我。
  本文紧紧围绕中心观点进行讨论,其中关于不良书籍的说法可能会造成一定干扰,但切忌勿因小失大,而忘记听真正要考查的重要信息。  1. Sydney is an important commercial, industrial and tourist center on the south-east coast of Australia. It is Australia’s largest city with a population of more than 3 million.
  译文:位于澳大利亚东南部海岸的悉尼,是澳大利亚重要的商业、工业和旅游中心。悉尼拥有300万人口,是澳大利亚最大的城市。
  2. For those who worry too much about their future, my advice is to live for the present, find some joy in each day, and help others in need.
  译文:对于那些过度为自己未来担忧的人来说,我的建议就是活在当下,每天都要找到生活的乐趣,并且为需要帮助的人伸出援助之手。
  3. A woman lawyer has some advantages in the court. For example, if my client is a woman who claim rights from her divorced husband, a woman lawyer can understand better and do a better job.
  译文:在法庭上,女性律师是有些优势的。比如说,如果委托人是一名与离婚丈夫发生权利纠纷的女性的话,那么女性律师更能够理解这位委托人,也就能够更好地完成工作。
  4. Researchers suggest that playing video games has similar effects to observing violent television content. Children imitate the aggressive actions from a video game just as they imitate violent television content.
  译文:有研究表明,玩电子游戏产生的负面影响和观看暴力电视节目产生的影响有些类似。小孩子会像模仿电视节目中的暴力行为一样模仿电子游戏中的过激行为。
  5. Every day, Americans use 450 billion gallons of water, such amount would cover New York City to a depth of 96 feet. We must remember that water is not inexhaustible on earth.
  译文:美国人每天要使用4500亿加仑的水。这个用水量可以把纽约市淹没至高达96英尺的水位。我们必须谨记,地球的水资源不是取之不尽用之不竭的。
  解析:这一部分总体难度适中,所涉内容基本与日常生活相关,几乎没有出现生僻的词汇。句型都比较简单,对理解题意不会造成影响。第四题的句式较其他几句稍复杂,需要理顺句中进行对比的两部分的关系,才能很好地理解题意并翻译出来。  Passage Translation 1:
  People often wonder why they have spend so much money at the supermarket, and often on things they didn’t intend to buy in the first place. A recent survey indicates that 75% of all grocery shoppers make at least one impulse buying. They may be attracted by eye-catching display, or colorful package. For those shoppers, there is a simple way of avoiding impulse buying, and saving money on groceries. That is, they should make a shopping list beforehand, and stick to it.
  译文:人们经常疑惑为什么他们去超市花了那么多钱,又经常买回一些他们原先没有打算要买的商品。一项最近的调查显示,75%逛杂货店的人至少有过1次冲动消费。他们或是被商品显眼的摆放所吸引,或是被五颜六色的包装所吸引。对于这些消费者来说,有一种简单的方法既能够帮助他们避免冲动消费又能省钱。那就是,提前列好购物清单,并严格执行。
  点评:本篇文章内容贴近现实生活,解释了一下“为什么很多人在超市会花掉很多钱”的疑问,并在最后提出了解决方案。整篇内容基本无难词,文中出现的数字也比较简单。考生需要注意的是一些关键短语的意思不要弄错,如impulse buying (冲动消费),beforehand (事先),stick to it (坚持下去)。
  Passage Translation 2:
  Daily exercise makes you feel good. It helps you think better and believe it or not, it helps you sleep better and feel more relaxed. Once you start exercising regularly, you will feel stronger and keep improving at physical activities. When you exercise, you breathe more deeply and get more oxygen into your lungs with each breath. Your heart pumps more oxygen-filled blood to all parts of your body with each beat. Your muscles and joints feel flexible. Exercise also helps you to stay at a healthy weight.
  译文:每天运动会让你感觉很棒。运动有助于思考,而且,信不信由你,它还有助于睡眠,让你更好地放松自己。一旦你开始了有规律的锻炼,你就会发现自己更加健壮了,体育运动的水平也在不断提高。你在运动的时候,做了更多的深呼吸,每次呼吸吸入肺部的氧气都会更多。血液的含氧量也会增加,心脏每次向身体各部分输送的血流量也会增多。同时,你的肌肉和关节也会变的灵活了。此外,锻炼也能帮助你保持健康的体重。
  评析:这是一篇以日常生活为主题的段落,讲述了锻炼身体会给人们带来的好处。内容非常贴近生活,考生可根据常识推断段落的内容和大意。所用的词汇和句子都比较常见,难度不大。
  段落语义虽容易理解,但考生要切忌word by word 的直译。比如段落多次出现feel这个单词,如果全部翻译成“感觉”,就显得呆板,不切文意。考生翻译的时候,要根据语境进行调整。如“it helps you sleep better and feel more relaxed.”中的feel可淡化,将relaxed从形容词转译为动词,译为“放松自己”。“you will feel stronger”中的feel可译为“发现”。另外,“Your heart pumps more oxygen-filled blood to all parts of your body with each beat.”这句如果直译的话,会造成句子意群过多,长度过长,不符合汉语的表达习惯,所以要注意切分句子,化长句会小句。本句中暗含着两层意思,一个是血液的含氧量会增加,另一个是,心脏每次向身体各部分输送的血流量会增多。纵观该段落,只要考生在平时多关注生活常识,对此类文章多加练习,一定会得到不错的分数。  When I was young, there was an amazing publication called The Whole Earth Catalog, which was one of the bibles of my generation. It was created by a fellow named Stewart Brand not far from here in Menlo Park, and he brought it to life with his poetic touch. This was in the late 1960′s, before personal computers and desktop publishing, so it was all made with typewriters, scissors, and Polaroid cameras. It was sort of like Google in paperback form, 35 years before Google came along: it was idealistic, and overflowing with neat tools and great notions.
  我年轻那会儿,有一本非常好的杂志,叫做《环球目录》,算得上我那一辈人的圣经。创办这本杂志的人名叫斯图尔特·布兰德,他就住在离这里不远的门罗公园。他用诗意的笔触为这本杂志赋予了生命。那是六十年代,个人电脑和电脑出版还未普及,因此整本杂志都是用打字机、剪刀和拍立得相机完成的,可以成为纸质版的谷歌搜索,但却比谷歌早出现了35年。它是理想主义的化身,满篇都是整洁的工具和伟大的观点。
  Stewart and his team put out several issues of The Whole Earth Catalog, and then when it had run its course, they put out a final issue. It was the mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the back cover of their final issue was a photograph of an early morning country road, the kind you might find yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous. Beneath it were the words: “Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.” It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. And I have always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you.
  斯图尔特和他的团队推出了几期《环球目录》,当他们遇到瓶颈便出版了最后一期。当时是70年代中期,那时的我和你们现在差不多大。最后一期的黑色封面上有一张照片,照片上是一条清晨的乡间小路,是那种你搭车出游时一定能看见的小路,如果你有这样的冒险精神的话。照片下方有这样一句话:“求知若渴,虚怀若愚。”这是他们谢幕时留下的告别辞。保持饥饿,保持愚蠢。我一直都希望自己能做到这一点。现在,你们就要毕业了,我也希望你们能够这样做。
  翻译评析:
  这篇短文取自于乔布斯在斯坦福大学毕业典礼上的演讲。语言比较口语化,词汇不难。因为是演讲类短文,所以考生在翻译的时候大可以顺序驱动。节选的这个短文有几处的词汇和短语大家可以注意下:
  poetic:充满诗情画意的
  idealistic: 理想主义的
  run his course: 完成使命
  hitchhiking: 搭乘
  sign off: 停止签发,停止  原文:
  传统的中国画,不模仿自然,是以表现自然,是以表现心灵舒发性情为主体的意象主义艺术,画中意象与书法中的文字一样,是一种适于书写的极度概括抽象的象征符号,伴随着意象符号的是传统的程式表现技巧。古代的大师们创造着独自心中的意象及其程式,风格迥异,生机勃勃。
  后来,多数人惯于对古人程式的模仿,所作之画千人一面。这样的画作一泛滥,雅的不再雅,俗的则更俗。近代中国画仍然在庸俗没落的模式漩涡中进退两难,阿文与当今的有识同行一样,有志标新立异,寻找自我,建立起现代的属于自己的新意象、新格局,且一直背靠着高雅的传统。
  译文:
  Traditional Chinese paintings are the art of imagism. They are the manifestation of the painter’s spirit and temperament rather than the imitation of nature. The images in the paintings are like the characters in calligraphy, both of which are highly abstract symbols but easy to convey meanings, and are always integrated with conventional artistic formalities. In this way, the ancient masters created the unique images and formulas in their minds, diverse in style and vivid in content.
  However, most people got accustomed to imitating these ancient paintings, at last, most paintings later on were nothing but copies. These copies are flooded everywhere, as a result, they undermines the elegant of art and encourages the vulgarity. Modern Chinese painting is still caught in a dilemma--- struggle to survive the downward vulgarity. Luckily, A Wen and some of his fellow artists are bent on breaking the mold. They want to find their individual identities to create new imageries and new styles of their own and in line with the modern times. Meanwhile, they continue to be inspired by the elegance of the past.
  翻译解析:
  这篇散文讲述了传统的中国话和今天的中国画。语言华丽,话题高端。这样的题出现在高口翻译题中不足为奇。考生在做题的时候需要把握散文中的“神”。找到句子的主干,抓住句子的主要意思,翻译的时候多使用长句,那么翻译应该能够顺利地拿下。  However attractive the figures may look on paper, in the long run the success or failure of a merger depends on the human factor. When the agreement has been signed and the accountants have departed, the real problems may only just be beginning. If there is a culture clash between the two companies in the way their people work, then all the efforts of the financiers and lawyers to strike a deal may have been in vain.
  According to Chris Bolton of KS Management Consultants, 70% of mergers fail to live up to their promise of shareholder value, riot through any failure in economic terms but because the integration of people is unsuccessful. Corporates, he explains, concentrate their efforts before a merger on legal, technical and financial matters. They employ a range of experts to obtain the most favourable contract possible. But even at these early stages, people issues must be taken into consideration. The strengths and weaknesses of both organisations should be assessed and, if it is a merger of equals, then careful thought should be given to which personnel, from which side, should take on the key roles.
  This was the issue in 2001 when the proposed merger between two pharmaceutical companies promised to create one of the largest players in the industry. For both companies the merger was intended to reverse falling market share and shareholder value. However, although the companies'' skill bases were compatible, the chief executives of the two companies could not agree which of them was to head up the new organisation. This illustrates the need to compromise if a merger is to take place.
  But even in mergers that do go ahead, there can be culture clashes. One way to avoid this is to work with focus groups to see how employees view the existing culture of their organisation. In one example, where two global organisations in the food sector were planning to merge, focus groups discovered that the companies displayed very different profiles. One was sales-focused, knew exactly what it wanted to achieve and pushed initiatives through. The other got involved in lengthy discussions, trying out options methodically and making contingency plans. The first responded quickly to changes in the marketplace; the second took longer, but the option it eventually chose was usually the correct one. Neither company''s approach would have worked for the other.
  The answer is not to adopt one company''s approach, or even to try to incorporate every aspect of both organisations, but to create a totally new culture. This means taking the best from both sides and making a new organisation that everyone can accept. Or almost everyone. Inevitably there will be those who cannot adapt to a different culture. Research into the impact of mergers has found that companies with differing management styles are the ones that need to work hardest at creating a new culture.
  Another tool that can help to get the right cultural mix is intercultural analysis. This involves carrying out research that looks at the culture of a company and the business culture of the country in which it is based. It identifies how people, money and time are managed in a company, and investigates the business customs of the country and how its politics, economics and history impact on the way business is done.
  1. According to the text, mergers can encounter problems when
      A contracts are signed too quickly.
  B experts cannot predict accurate figures.
  C conflicting attitudes cannot be resolved.
  D staff are opposed to the terms of the deal.
  2. According to Chris Bolton, what do many organisations do in preparation for a merger?
  A ensure their interests are represented
  B give reassurances to shareholders
  C consider the effect of a merger on employees
  D analyse the varying strengths of their staff
  3. The proposed merger of two pharmaceutical groups failed because
  A major shareholders were opposed.
  B there was a fall in the demand for their products.
  C there were problems combining their areas of expertise.
  D an issue of personal rivalry could not be resolved.
  4. According to the text, focus groups can help companies to
  A develop new initiatives.
  B adopt contingency plans.
  C be decisive and react rapidly.
  D evaluate how well matched they are.
  5.Creating a new culture in a newly merged organisation means that
  A management styles become more flexible.
  B there is more chance of the merger working.
  C staff will find it more difficult to adapt to the changes.
  D successful elements of the original organisations are lost.
  6. According to the text, intercultural analysis will show
  A what kind of benefits a merger can lead to.
  B how the national context affects the way a company is run.
  C how long it will take for a company culture to develop.
  D what changes companies should make before a merger takes place.  参考答案及解析:
  《Achieving a successful merger》,实现一个成功的并购。文章没有从技术和经济效益的角度来分析并购成功的因素,而是强调了一个在并购中容易被忽视的重要因素:文化冲突。不同的企业文化走到了一起,能否兼容是并购能否成功的关键因素。一个比较著名的例子是当年惠普与康柏的并购。
  第1题,问什么情况下并购会遇到麻烦。答案是A段的最后一句,关键词是culture clash:如果两个公司的员工在工作方式上存在文化冲突,那么金融专家和律师们为了达成交易所做的一切努力都是徒劳的。所以选C:冲突性的态度无法得到解决。Conflicting attitude对应于culture clash。attitude具体指公司员工做事情的方式和态度。
  第2题,问很多机构为并购所做的准备是什么。答案是第二段的这么一句话:Corporates, he explains, concentrate their efforts before a merger on legal, technical and financial matters。公司都把精力集中在法律、技术和金融事务上了。也就是更多的看重经济等方面的利益,而忽视了人的因素。选A:确保他们的利益得到很好的反映,也就是自己的利益有保障。represent在这里的意思是be present or found in something, especially to a particular degree。
  第3题,问这俩医药公司并购失败的原因是什么。答案是第三段的倒数第二句:the chief executives of the two companies could not agree which of them was to head up the new organisation.在谁来领导新的机构的问题上无法达成一致。所以选D:人员竞争问题无法得到解决。Personal rivalry就是指两个领导谁也不服谁。
  第4题,问focus group可以帮助公司干什么。先弄明白focus group的意思,看剑桥高阶的解释:a group of people who have been brought together to discuss a particular subject in order to solve a problem or suggest ideas。处理问题的团体。答案在第四段。这一段是举例说明两个合并公司的文化兼容性问题。经过focus group的调查,这两个公司的做事方式有很大差别,不能兼容。所以这一题的答案是选D:评估他们能否匹配。
  第5题,问在一个新合并的公司里创造新的文化意味着什么。答案是第五段的这么一句:This means taking the best from both sides and making a new organisation that everyone can accept。吸取双方的优点,创造一个所有人都能接受的新组织。每个人都能接受,那么合并成功的可能性会大大增加。选B:合并起作用的几率增加了。
  第6题,跨文化分析能够表明什么。答案是最后一段的最后一句:how its politics, economics and history impact on the way business is done.看看这个国家的政治、经济和历史是怎么影响商业行为的。也就是考察宏观的国家背景对微观的经济个体的影响。选B:国家背景怎样影响公司的运行方式。  Signs of the times: Wall Street protesters get creative with placards in effort to make their message heard. 选自《每日邮报》
  As the Occupy Wall Street protest enters its third week, demonstrators are making increasingly creative placards to ensure their voices are heard. Clever word play, bright colours, famous quotations and popular images have all been used to crystallise their message of opposing corporate influence over U.S. politics and the lack of legal repercussions following the 2008 banks bailout.
  One poster shows a picture of the White House with a letting sign on the lawn which reads ’For Sale - To The Highest Bidders’. Another uses the iconic image of Lord Kitchener, wearing a V for Vendetta mask, over the words ’I Want You To OccupyWallStreet’. Signs displaying quotes from Gandhi and English writer GK Chesterton have been used to contextualise this protest with ones from the past, while many have puns on Wall Street. One placard says ’Lets Rip Down The Wall And Make It Just A Street’, another ’Wall Street Is Our Street’.
  A recurring motif is money and greed and how the demonstrators supposedly represent 99 per cent of Americans. One sign reads: ’The Whole World Is Going Bankrupt - To Who?’
  There is even a poster called the ’Map of the Occupied States of America’, which uses stars to highlight future locations for protest.
  Not all people needed cardboard to display their message, however. One protester used bright blue chalk to write on the sidewalk: ’Occupation Is My Occupation’. Makeshift camps including a library and pharmacies have been set up by Wall Street protesters in a clear sign that they intend to carry out their promise of staying into the winter. The development came after thousands of people yesterday marched to New York Police Department (NYPD) headquarters following accusations of brutality from officers dealing with demonstrators. Similar protests against the banking system have spread across the country, with events taking place up in Boston, Los Angeles and Chicago.
  New York City police are braced for a weekend of unrest in the Financial District, with the Occupy Wall Street protest showing little sign of dissipating as it moves into its third straight week. People have travelled from all over the country to voice their anger at the 2008 bank bailouts, rising numbers of foreclosures and persistently high unemployment. Protesters signalled their intention to keep a presence in Zuccotti Park, just outside Wall Street, by setting up larger camps of mattresses and sleeping bags, and laying out a basic library, newspaper stands, pharmacies and I.T. hubs.  The days of the camera-toting tourist may be numbered. Insensitive travelers are being ordered to stop pointing their cameras and camcorders at reluctant local residents. Tour companies selling expensive trips to remote corners of the world, off the well-trodden path of the average tourist, have become increasingly irritated at the sight of the visitors upsetting locals. Now one such operator plans to ban clients from taking any photographic equipment on holidays. Julian Mathews is the director of Discovery Initiatives, a company that is working hand-in-hand with other organizations to offer holidays combining high adventure with working on environmental projects. His trips are not cheap; two weeks of white-water rafting and monitoring wildlife in Canada cost several thousand pounds.
  Matthews says he is providing ''holidays without guilt'', insisting that Discovery Initiatives is not a tour operator but an environmental support company. Clients are referred to as ''participants'' or ''ambassadors''. ''We see ourselves as the next step on from eco-tourism, which is merely a passive form. of sensitive travel - our approach is more proactive.''
  However, says Matthews, there is a price to pay. ''I am planning to introduce tours with a total ban on cameras and camcorders because of the damage they do to our relationships with local people. I have seen some horrendous things, such as a group of six tourists arriving at a remote village in the South American jungle, each with a video camera attached to their face. That sort of thing tears me up inside. Would you like somebody to come into your home and take a photo of you cooking? A camera is like a weapon; it puts up a barrier and you lose all the communication that comes through body language, which effectively means that the host communities are denied access to the so-called cultural exchange.''
  Matthews started organizing environmental holidays after a scientific expedition for young people. He subsequently founded Discovery Expeditions, which has helped support 13 projects worldwide. With the launch of Discovery Initiatives, he is placing a greater emphasis on adventure and fun, omitting in the brochure all references to scientific research. But his rules of conduct are strict. ''In some parts of the world, for instance, I tell people they should wear long trousers, not shorts, and wear a tie, when eating out. It may sound dictatorial, but I find one has a better experience if one is well dressed. I don''t understand why people dress down when they go to other countries.''
  Matthews'' views reflect a growing unease among some tour companies at the increasingly cavalier behaviour of well-heeled tourists. Chris Parrott, of Journey Latin America, says: ''We tell our clients that indigenous people are often shy about being photographed, but we certainly don''t tell them not to take a camera. If they take pictures without asking, they may have tomatoes thrown at them.'' He also reports that increasing numbers of clients are taking camcorders and pointing them indiscriminately at locals. He says: ''People with camcorders tend to be more intrusive than those with cameras, but there is a payoff - the people they are filming get a tremendous thrill from seeing themselves played back on the viewfinder.''
  Crispin Jones, of Exodus, the overland truck specialist, says: ''We don''t have a policy but, should cameras cause offence, our tour leaders will make it quite clear that they cannot be used. Clients tend to do what they are told.
  Earthwatch, which pioneered the concept of proactive eco-tourism by sending paying volunteers to work on scientific projects around the world, does not ban cameras, but operates strict rules on their use. Ed Wilson, the marketing director of the company, says: ''We try to impress on people the common courtesy of getting permission before using their cameras, and one would hope that every tour operator would do the same. People have to be not only environmentally aware but also culturally aware. Some people use the camera as a barrier; it allows them to distance themselves from the reality of what they see. I would like to see tourists putting their cameras away for once, rather than trying to record everything they see.''
  参考题目:
  1. In the first paragraph we learn that Discovery Initiatives
  A offers trips that no other tour company offers.
  B organizes trips to places where few tourists go.
  C has decided to respond to its customers complaints.
  D has already succeeded in changing the kind of tourist it attracts.
  2. Julian Matthews thinks that the function of the company is to
  A get people involved in environmental work.
  B influence the way other tour companies operate.
  C inform. holidaymakers about environmental damage.
  D co-operate with foreign governments to promote eco-tourism.
  3. What does Matthews say in the third paragraph about cameras and
  camcorders?
  A They give local people a false impression of holidaymakers. B They discourage holidaymakers from intruding on local people. C They prevent local people from learning about other societies. D They encourage holidaymakers to behave unpredictably.
  4. What is Mathews keen for clients to realize?
  A that certain behaviour may spoil their enjoyment of a trip. B that they may find certain local customs rather surprising.
  C that it is likely that they will not be allowed in certain places. D that the brochure does not contain all the information they need.
  5. Which of the following does Chris Parrot believe?
  A Tourists are likely to agree to travel without cameras. B Local people may react angrily towards tourists who use cameras. C Tourists are becoming more sensitive about their use of cameras. D Camcorders always cause more trouble with local people than cameras.
  6. Crispin Jones says that his company
  A expects its staff to prevent problems over the use of cameras. B seldom encounters problems regarding the use of cameras. C is going to decide on a firm policy regarding the use of cameras. D advises clients about the use of cameras before they leave.
  7. Which of the following best summarises the view of Earthwatch?
  A Too many tour operators ignore the problems caused by cameras.
  B Most tourists realize when they have caused offence to local people.
  C There are more problems concerning the use of cameras these days.
  D Cameras enable people to be detached from places they visit.
  8. The word intrusive in the text means...
  A becoming involved in something in a way that is not welcome. B behaving towards other people in a pleasant way. C willing to do things that are unfair, dishonest, or illegal. D deserving to be blamed for something that has happened.
  参考答案:BACABADA
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