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2009年12月英语六级阅读真题及答案

2013-06-09 17:22   来源:外语教育网       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

2013年6月的英语六级考试就要到了,在最后的备考阶段,再回顾一下英语六级考试阅读真题对考生巩固复习效果有非常好的作用。外语教育网祝各位考生取得优异的成绩。

Section A

Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2

Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.

Many countries have made it illegal to chat into a hand-held mobile phone white driving. But the latest research further confirms that the danger lies less in what a motorist’s hands do when he takes a call than in what the conversation does to his brain. Even using a “hands-free” device can divert a driver’s attention to an alarming extent.

Melina Kunar of the University of Warwick, and Todd Horowitz of Harvard Medical School ran a series of experiments in which two groups of volunteers ha to pay attention and respond to a series of moving tasks on a computer screen that were reckoned equivalent in difficulty to driving. One group was left undistracted while the other had to engage in a conversation using a speakerphone. As Kunar and Horowitz report, those who were making the equivalent of a hands-free call had an average reaction time 212 milliseconds slower than those who were not. That, they calculate, would add 5.7 metres to the braking distance of a car traveling at 100kph. They also found the group using the hands-free kit made 83% more errors in their tasks than those who were not talking.

To try to understand more about why this was, they tried two further tests. In one, members of a group were asked simply to repeat words spoken by the caller. In the other, they had to think of a word that began with the last letter of the word they had just heard. Those only repeating words performed the same as those with no distraction, but those with the more complicated task showed even worse reaction times-an average of 480 milliseconds extra delay. This shows that when people have to consider the information they hear carefully, it can impair their driving ability significantly.

Punishing people for using hand-held gadgets while driving is difficult enough, even though they can be seen from outside the car. Persuading people to switch their phones off altogether when they get behind the wheel might be th only answer. Who knows, they might even come to enjoy not having to take calls.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

47. Carrying on a mobile phone conversation while one is driving is considered dangerous because it seriously distracts _____________.

48. In the experiments, the two groups of volunteers were asked to handle a series of moving tasks which were considered _____________.

49. Results of the experiments show that those who were making the equivalent of a hands-free call took ___________ to react than those who were not.

50. Further experiments reveal that participants tend to respond with extra delay if they are required to do _______________.

51. The author believes persuasion, rather than _________, might be the only way to stop people from using mobile phones while driving.

Section B

Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followe by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

Passage One

Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.

Crippling health care bills, long emergency-room waits and the inability to find a primary care physician just scratch the surface of the problems that patients face daily.

Primary care should be the backbone of any health care system. Countries with appropriate primary care resources score highly when it comes to health outcomes and cost. The U.S. takes the opposite approach by emphasizing the specialist rather than the primary care physician.

A recent study analyzed the providers who treat Medicare beneficiaries (老年医保受惠人). The startling finding was that the average Medicare patient saw a total of seven doctors — two primary care physicians and five specialists — in a given year. Contrary to popular belief, the more physicians taking care of you doesn’t guarantee better care. Actually, increasing fragmentation of care results in a corresponding rise in cost and medical errors.

How did we let primary care slip so far? The key is how doctors are paid. Most physicians are paid whenever they perform a medical service. The more a physician does, regardless of quality or outcome, the better he's reimbursed(返还费用). Moreover, the amount a physician receives leans heavily toward medical or surgical procedures. A specialist who performs a procedure in a 30-minute visit can be paid three times more than a primary care physician using that same 30 minutes to discuss a patient's disease. Combine this fact with annual government threats to indiscriminately cut reimbursements, physicians are faced with no choice but to increase quantity to boost income.

Primary care physicians who refuse to compromise quality are either drive out of business or to cash-only practices, further contributing to the declin of primary care.

Medical students aren't blind to this scenario. They see how heavily the reimbursement deck is stacked against primary care. The recent numbers show that since 1997, newly graduated U.S. medical students who choose primary care as a career have declined by 50%. This trend results in emergency rooms being overwhelmed with patients without regular doctors.

How do we fix this problem?

It starts with reforming the physician reimbursement system. Remove the pressure for primary care physicians to squeeze in more patients per hour, and reward them for optimally(最佳地) managing their diseases and practicing evidence-based medicine. Make primary care more attractive to medical students by forgiving student loans for those who choose primary care as a career and reconciling the marked difference between specialist and primary care physician salaries.

We’re at a point where primary care is needed more than ever. Within a few years, the first wave of the 76 million Baby Boomers will become eligible for Medicare. Patients older than 85, who need chronic care most, will rise by 50% this decade.

Who will be there to treat them?

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

52. The author’s chief concern about the current U.S. health care system is _________.

A) the inadequate training of physicians C) the ever-rising health car costs

B) the declining number of doctors D) the shrinking primary care resources.

53. We learn from the passage that people tend to believe that _________.

A) seeing more doctors may result in more diagnostic errors

B) visiting doctors on a regular basis ensures good health

C) the more doctors taking care of a patient, the better

D) the more costly the medicine, the more effective the cure.

54. Faced with the government threats to cut reimbursements indiscriminately, primary care physicians have to __________.

A) see more patients at the expense of quality

B) improve their expertise and service

C) make various deals with specialists

D) increase their income by working overtime

55. Why do many new medical graduates refuse to choose primary care as their career?

A) They think working in emergency rooms tedious.

B) The current system works against primary care.

C) They find the need for primary care declining.

D) Primary care physicians command less respect.

56. What suggestion does the author give in order to provide better healt care?

A) Extend primary care to patients with chronic diseases.

B) Recruit more medical students by offering them loans.

C) Reduce the tuition of students who choose primary care as their major.

D) Bridge the salary gap between specialists and primary care physicians.

Passage Two

Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

There is nothing like the suggestion of a cancer risk to scare a parent, especially one of the over-educated, eco-conscious type. So you can imagine th reaction when a recent USA Today investigation of air quality around the nation’s schools singled out those in the smugly(自鸣得意) green village of Berkeley, Calif., as being among the worst in the country. The city’s public high school, as well as a number of daycare centers, preschools, elementary and middle schools, fell in the lowest 10%. Industrial pollution in our town had supposedly turned students into living science experiments breathing in a laboratory’s worth of heavy metals like manganese, chromium and nickel each day. This in a city that requires school cafeterias to serve organic meals. Great, I thought, organic lunch, toxic recess.

Since December, when the report came out, the mayor, neighborhood activists(活跃分子) and various parent-teacher associations have engaged in a fierce battle over its validity, over the guilt of the steel-casting factory on the western edge of town, over union jobs versus children’s health and over what, if anything, ought to be done. With all sides presenting their own experts armed with conflicting scientific studies, whom should parents believe? Is there truly a threat here, we asked one another as we dropped off our kids, and if so, how great is it? And how does it compare with the other, seemingly perpetual health scares we confront, like panic over lead in synthetic athletic fields? Rather than just another weird episode in the town that brought you protestin environmentalists, this latest drama is a trial for how today’s parents perceive risk, how we try to keep our kids safe-whether it’s possible to keep the safe-in what feels like an increasingly threatening world. It raises the question of what, in our time, “safe” could even mean.

“There’s no way around the uncertainty,” says Kimberly Thompson, president of Kid Risk, a nonprofit group that studies children’s health. “That means your choices can matter, but it also means you aren’t going to know if they do.” A 2004 report in the journal Pediatrics explained that nervous parents have more to fear from fire, car accidents and drowning than from toxic chemical exposure. To which I say: Well, obviously. But such concrete hazards are beside the point. It’s the dangers parents can’t — and may never — quantify that occur all of a sudden. That’s why I’ve rid my cupboard of microwave food packed in bags coated with a potential cancer-causing substance, but although I’ve lived blocks from a major fault line(地质断层) for more than 12 years, I still haven’t bolted our bookcases to the living room wall.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

57. What does a recent investigation by USA Today reveal?

A) Parents in Berkeley are over-sensitive to cancer risks their kids face.

B) The air quality around Berkeley’s school campuses is poor.

C) Berkeley residents are quite contented with their surroundings.

D) Heavy metals in lab tests threaten children’s health in Berkeley.

58. What response did USA Today’s report draw?

A) Popular support. C) A heated debate.

B) Widespread panic. D) Strong criticism.

59. How did parents feel in the face of the experts' studies?

A) They didn't know who to believe.

B) They felt very much relieved.

C) They weren't convinced of the results.

D) They were frightened by the evidence.

60. What is the view of the 2004 report in the journal Pediatrics?

A) Parents should be aware of children's health hazards.

B) Attention should be paid to toxic chemical exposure.

C) It is important to quantify various concrete hazards.

D) Daily accidents pose a more serious threat to children.

61. Of the dangers in everyday life, the author thinks that people have most to fear from ________.

A) the uncertain

B) an earthquake

C) the quantifiable

D) unhealthy food

参考答案

47. a driver’s attention

48. equivalent in difficulty to driving

49. more time

50. more complicated task

51. Punishment

52—61 D C A B D B B A B A

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