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2011年12月英语六级快速阅读真题与答案

2013-06-09 17:36   来源:外语教育网       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

2013年6月的英语六级考试就要到了,在最后的备考阶段,再回顾一下英语六级考试阅读真题对考生巩固复习效果有非常好的作用。外语教育网祝各位考生取得优异的成绩。

Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)

Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer thequestions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.

Google's Plan for World's Biggest Online Library: Philanthropy Or Act of Piracy?

In recent years, teams of workers dispatched by Google have been working hard to make digital copies of books. So far, Google has scanned more than 10 million titles from libraries in America and Europe - including half a million volumes held by the Bodleian in Oxford. The exact method it uses is unclear; the company does not allow outsiders to observe the process.

Why is Google undertaking such a venture? Why is it even interested in al those out-of-printlibrary books, most of which have been gathering dust on forgotten shelves for decades? Thecompany claims its motives are essentially public-spirited. Its overall mission, after all, is to "organise the world's information", so it would be odd if that information did not include books.

The company likes to present itself as having lofty aspirations. "This really isn't about making money. We are doing this for the good of society." As Santiago de la Mora, head of Google Books for Europe, puts it: "By making it possible to search the millions of books that exist today, we hope to expand th frontiers of human knowledge."

Dan Clancy, the chief architect of Google Books, does seem genuine in his conviction that thisis primarily a philanthropic (慈善的) exercise. "Google's core business is search and find, soobviously what helps improve Google's search engine is good for Google," he says. "But we havenever built a spreadsheet (电子数据表) outlining the financial benefits of this, and I have neverhad to justify the amount I am spending to the company's founders."

It is easy, talking to Clancy and his colleagues, to be swept along by their missionary passion. But Google's book-scanning project is proving controversial. Several opponents have recently emerged, ranging from rival tech giants such as Microsoft and Amazon to small bodies representing authors and publishers across the world. In broad terms, these opponents have levelled two sets of criticisms at Google.

First, they have questioned whether the primary responsibility for digitally archiving the world's books should be allowed to fall to a commercial company. In a recent essay in the New YorkReview of Books, Robert Darnton, the head of Harvard University's library, argued that because such books are a common resource – the possession of us all – only public, not-for-profit bodiesshould be given the power to control them.

The second related criticism is that Google's scanning of books is actually illegal. This allegation has led to Google becoming mired in (陷入) a legal battle whose scope and complexity makes the Jarndyce and Jarndyce case in Charles Dickens' Bleak House look straightforward.

At its centre, however, is one simple issue: that of copyright. The inconvenient fact about most books, to which Google has arguably paid insufficient attention, is that they are protected by copyright. Copyright laws differ from country to country, but in general protection extends for the duration of an author's life and for a substantial period afterwards, thus allowing the author's heirs to benefit. (In Britain and America, this post-death period is 70 years.) This means, of course, that almost all of the books published in the 20th century are still under copyright – and the last century saw more books published than in all previous centuries combined. Of the roughly 40 million books in US libraries, for example, an estimated 32 million are in copyright. Of these, some 27 million are out of print.

Outside the US, Google has made sure only to scan books that are out of copyright and thus in the "public domain" (works such as the Bodleian's first edition of Middlemarch, which anyone canread for free on Google Books Search).

But, within the US, the company has scanned both in-copyright and out-of-copyright works. Inits defence, Google points out that it displays only small segments of books that are in copyright– arguing that such displays are "fair use". But critics allege that by making electronic copies of these books without first seeking the permission of copyright holders, Google has committed piracy.

"The key principle of copyright law has always been that works can be copied only once authors have expressly given their permission," says Piers Blofeld, of the Sheil Land literary agency in London. "Google has reversed this – it has simply copied all these works without bothering toask."

In 2005, the Authors Guild of America, together with a group of US publishers, launched aclass action suit (集团诉讼) against Google that, after more than two years of negotiation, endedwith an announcement last October that Google and the claimants had reached an out-of-courtsettlement. The full details are complicated - the text alone runs to 385 pages– and trying tosummarise it is no easy task. "Part of the problem is that it is basically incomprehensible," saysBlofeld, one of the settlement's most vocal British critics.

Broadly, the deal provides a mechanism for Google to compensate authors and publishers whose rights it has breached (including giving them a share of any future revenue it generates fromtheir works). In exchange for this, the rights holders agree not to sue Google in future.

This settlement hands Google the power - but only with the agreement of individual rights holders – to exploit its database of out-of-print books. It can include them in subscription deals sold to libraries or sell them individually under a consumer licence. It is these commercial provisions that are proving the settlement's most controversial aspect.

Critics point out that, by giving Google the right to commercially exploi its database, thesettlement paves the way for a subtle shift in the company's role from provider of information to seller. "Google's business model has always been to provide information for free, and sell advertising on the basis of the traffic this generates," points out James Grimmelmann, associate professor at New York Law School. Now, he says, because of the settlement's provisions, Google could become a significant force in bookselling.

Interest in this aspect of the settlement has focused on "orphan" works, where there is noknown copyright holder – these make up an estimated 5-10% of the books Google has scanned. Under the settlement, when no rights holders come forward and register their interest in a work, commercial control automatically reverts to Google. Google will be able to display up to 20% oforphan works for free, include them in its subscription deals to libraries and sell them t individual buyers under the consumer licence.

It is by no means certain that the settlement will be enacted (执行) – it is the subject of afairness hearing in the US courts. But if it is enacted, Google will in effect be off the hook as far as copyright violations in the US are concerned. Many people are seriously concerned by this - and the company i likely to face challenges in other courts around the world.

No one knows the precise use Google will make of the intellectual propert it has gained byscanning the world's library books, and the truth, as Gleick, an American science writer and member of the Authors Guild, points out, is that the company probably doesn't even know itself. But what is certain is that, in some way or other, Google's entrance into digital bookselling will have a significant impact on the book world in the years to come.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。

1. Google claims its plan for the world's biggest online library is _____.

A) to serve the interest of the general public

B) to encourage reading around the world

C) to save out-of-print books in libraries

D) to promote its core business of searching

2. According to Santiago de la Mora, Google's book-scanning project will _____.

A) broaden humanity's intellectual horizons

B) help the broad masses of readers

C) revolutionise the entire book industry

D) make full use of the power of its search engine

3. Opponents of Google Books believe that digitally archiving the world's books should be controlled by _____.

A) non-profit organisations C) multinational companies

B) the world's leading libraries D) the world's tech giants

4. Google has involved itself in a legal battle as it ignored _____.

A) the copyright of authors of out-of-print books

B) the copyright of the books it scanned

C) the interest of traditional booksellers

D) the differences of in-print and out-of-print books

5. Google defends its scanning in-copyright books by saying that _____.

A) it displays only a small part of their content

B) it is willing to compensate the copyright holders

C) making electronic copies of books is not a violation of copyright

D) the online display of in-copyright books is not for commercial use

6. What do we learn about the class action suit against Google?

A) It ended in a victory for the Authors Guild of America.

B) It was settled after more than two years of negotiation.

C) It failed to protect the interests of American publishers.

D) It could lead to more out-of-court settlements of such disputes.

7. What remained controversial after the class action suit ended?

A) The compensation for copyright holders.

B) The change in Google's business model.

C) Google's further exploitation of its database.

D) The commercial provisions of the settlement.

8. While _____, Google makes money by selling advertising.

9. Books whose copyright holders are not known are called _____.

10. Google's entrance into digital bookselling will tremendously _____ in the future.

参考答案

1A.to serve the interest of the general public

2.A. broaden humanity's intellectual horizons

3. A.non-profit organisations

4.B. the copyright of the books it scanned

5. D. the online display of in-copyright books is not for commercial use

6. B. It was settle after more than two years of negotiation.

7. D. The commercial provision of the settlement

8. Providing information for free

9. orphan works

10. change the world’s book market

责任编辑:lh
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