The cohesiveness（内聚力）of a family seems to rely on members sharing certain routine practices and events. For a growing share of the American labor force, however, working shifts beyond the normal daylight hours--what we here call "shift work"--makes the lives of families difficult.
Existing re.search shows that both male and female shift workers express high levels of stress and a sense of conflict between the demands of work and family life. But shift work couples still maintain a traditional attitude to the meaning of marriage and the individual roles of husband and wife. They expressed a willingness to do "whatever it takes" to approximate their view of a proper marriage,in- cluding sacrificing sleep and doing conventional things at unconventional hours. For the majority of couples interviewed, even when wives worked outside their homes, a proper marriage is characterized by a very clear division of roles: husbands are "providers" whose major responsibility is to support the family ;wives arc "homemakers" who clean, cook, and care for husbands and children.
The women's definitions of a "good husband" are typified by the following wife's response:
I expect him to be a good provider, and be there when I need him, loyal about the same things as he would expect out of me,expect that I expect him to dominate over me. But in a manner of speaking, wben it' s time to be a man I expect him to stand up instead of sitting back expecting me to do everything.To husbands,a good wife is someone who is:
Understanding of what I feel go through at work. I need that respect at work,I hope I get it al work. I want my wife to realize what I expect at work. I don' t want her to give me a lot of shil when I come home from work because I don' t know if this makes much sense.
These views seemed critical to maintain the families of the shift workers.
1. Despite, shift work couples still hoped to maintain a stable life.
[A] traditional beliefs about marriage
[B] Jack of control over time
[C] a very clear division of roles
[D] the demands of work
2. From the selection, we can conclude that female shift workers were NOT satisfied with
[A] their work
[B] their children
[C] their husbands' inability to protect the family and provide companionship
[D] leisure activities
3. What is implied by the author?
[A] Shift work had a direct effect on the attitudes and behavior of family members.
[B] Shift workers could live a normal life.
[C] Shift work couples had unconventional ideas about marriage.
[D] Female shift workers were satisfied with the time spent together with their families.
4. In order to continue the marriages of the shift workers,
[A] wives must learn to care for the children when their husbands are absent
[B] shift work couples must administer their time and activities
[C] wives mustn' t adapt their own feelings of boredom to their husbands'
[D] all of thesework
5. The best title for this paragraph is
[A] Constructing Family Life
[B] Managing Time and Activities
[C] The Meaning of Marriage
[D] Living a Normal Life
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