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2017年12月大学英语六级长篇阅读自测题(1)

2017-08-30 08:45   来源:外语教育网整理       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

10 Ways Obama Could Fight Climate Change

[A] One of the biggest surprises of President Barack Obama's inaugural address,on Monday was how much he focused on fighting climate change, spending more time on that issue than any other. "We will respond to the threat of climate change, knowing that the failure to do so would betray our children and future generations," Obama said. The President pointed out that recent severe weather supplied an urgent impetus for energy innovation and staked the nation's economic future on responding to a changing climate. "We cannot cede to other nations the technology that will power new jobs and new industries--we must claim its promise," Obama said. '" That's how we will maintain our economic vitality and our national treasure--our forests and waterways; our croplands and snowcapped (山顶积雪的) peaks. That is how we will preserve our planet, commanded to our care by God. " so what could the President reasonably do to deliver on that vow? Here are ten of their suggestions:

Sunset coal with new incentives and regulations.

[B] "Provide incentives to phase out the oldest, most polluting power plants," said Robert Jackson, a climate scientist at Duke University. It's already happening, to some degree, as more of the nation transitions to natural gas. Earth scientist Bill Chameides, dean of Duke's Nicholas School of the Environment and a former chief scientist at the Environmental Defense Fund, urges the administration to use its Clean, Air Act authority to promulgate (颁布 )carbon regulations for existing power plants like it has for new ones: "Doing that will force fuel switching from coal to natural gas. "Invest federal stimulus money in nuclear power.

[C] It's hardly a perfect fuel, as accidents like Japan's Fukushima fallout have shown, but with safety precautions new nuclear plants can meaningfully offset dirtier types of energy, supporters say."Nuclear is the only short-to medium-term way to really get away from fossil fuels," said Peter Raven. President emeritus of the Missouri Botanical Garden. He said the damage done by relentless global warming will far exceed the damage done by faults in the nuclear system.

Kill the Keystone pipeline.

[D] The controversial Keystone XL oil pipeline is up for review again by the White House this year. "The font thing he should do to set the tone to a lower carbon economy is to reject the Keystone pipeline, “said Raymond Pierrehum Bert, a geophysical scientist at the University of Chicago. The pipeline was never going to be a major driver of global emissions, but Pierre humbert and some other environmentalists say that by killing it the President would send a clear message about America's intent to ramp down fossil fuels.

Protect the oceans by executive order.

[E] Land use is complicated, but large swaths of oceans can be protected by executive order. Just as President George W. Bush designated the world's largest marine monument northwest of Hawaii in 2006. Obama could single-handedly protect other areas. National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Sylvia Earle said the President should focus on parts of the Arctic that are under U. S. control, putting them off limits to energy production, commercial fishing, and mineral exploration. Marine sanctuaries (禁捕区) won't stop climate change, but they can give marine species a better chance of adapting to it by reducing the other man-made threats the animals face.

Experiment with capturing carbon.

[F] Huge untapped reserves of natural gas and oil make it unlikely that the U. S. will transition away from fossil fuels in the immediate future. Instead, said Wallace Broecker, geology professor at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, we should attack the atmosphere's carbon surplus directly. "Obama could make available funds to build and test prototype air capture units" to capture and store CO2, said Broecker. Removing some carbon from the atmosphere could buy valuable time as policy makers and scientists explore more permanent solutions.

Grow government research for new energy sources.

[G] The Department of Energy has a nimble program that's tasked with innovative energy research—the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy. The ARPA-E funds research in biofuels, transmission,and battery storage, with an annual budget of $ 275 million. Last year, DOE officials requested at least $ 75 million more. Increasing funding for ARPA-E, said Rare Pomerance, former deputy assistant secretary of state for environment and development and currently an environmental consultant, "you get new technologies that undercut coal, oil, and gas. " Plus, he said, yon get a competitive advantage if American researchers uncover the next big idea in new energy.

Tax carbon.

[H] Congress would have to agree, but many climate experts say that the most meaningful way to tackle emissions is to set a price on carbon. "We should be asking people to pay the cost of putting carbon into the atmosphere as they buy the fuel," said Josh Willis, climate scientist and oceanographer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. To gain political support for the idea, Obama would probably have to show that the tax wonld help accelerate technology, grow new industries, and pay down the deficit.

Dial back the federal government's energy use.

[I] With more than I. 8 million employees, $ 500 billion in annual purchasing power, and 500,000 buildings to operate, the federal government has been a leader in reducing energy use since Obama signed a 2009 executive order to cut waste. "I would urge him to keep using the power of government to promote energy conservation," said Syndonia Bret-Harte, an Arctic biologist who studies climate change at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

Build a scientific clearinghouse for climate information.

[J] "I advocate for building a better information system on what is happening and why," said Kevin Tren berth, head of the Climate Analysis Section at the U. S. National Center for Atmospheric Research. That involves compiling observations related to climate change from around the world and using the data to refine climate modeling. Think of it as a one-stop, user-friendly website that clearly demonstrates how weather data from around the globe are influenced by broader shifts in the planet's climate.

Keep talking. Despite a consensus among top scientists, the world still needs some convincing on climate change.

[K] A CNN poll last week found that just 49 percent of Americans agree that global warming is real and is due to human activities. "The most important thing the President can do is to build on his inaugural comments to heighten the sense of urgency about rapid climate destabilization and clarify its connection to virtually every other issue on the national agenda," said David Orr, environmental studies professor at Oberlin College. That means using the bully clergymen to show how a more volatile climate affects everything from agriculture to transportation to 21st-century warfare.

46. The urge to promulgate carbon regulations is aimed at pushing power plants to replace coal by natural gas.

47. Marine sanctuaries should be preserved because they help sea species adapt to climate alteration.

48. The government should take the responsibility to raise Americans' awareness about climate change.

49. Many climate experts believe that the most effective way to lower emission is to tax on carbon.

50. Nuclear supporters argue that nuclear system failures are less challenging than global warming.

51. Recent extreme weather made President Obama feel it is urgent to address climate change.

52. Keystone pipeline should be rejected because it is a signal to reduce fossil fuels.

53. Since Obama signed a 2009 executive order to cut waste, the federal government has taken the lead in saving energy.

54. Lower carbon emission will be most likely to happen if research in new energy resources succeeds.

55. Compared with turning to new energy, America prefers carbon capture and store as a temporary measure.

46. The urge to promulgate carbon regulations is aimed at pushing power plants to replace coal by natural gas.

译文 推动颁布碳法规的目的在于迫使燃料从煤炭转向天然气。

定位 由关键词promulgate carbon regulations,coal,natural gas定位到原文划线句。

47. Marine sanctuaries should be preserved because they help sea species adapt to climate alteration.

译文 秘海洋禁捕区应予以保留,因为它们可以让海洋生物更好地适应气候变化。

定位 关键词 Marine sanctuaries,sea species定位到原文划线句。

48. The government should take the responsibility to raise Americans' awareness about climate change.

译文 秘政府应该承担起责任,加强美国民众对气候变化的认识。

定位 由关键词Americans’awareness定位到原文划线句。

49. Many climate experts believe that the most effective way to lower emission is to tax on carbon.

译文 气候专家认为解决碳排放问题最有效的方法就是征税。

定位 关键词Many climate experts定位到原文划线句。

50. Nuclear supporters argue that nuclear system failures are less challenging than global warming.

译文 核能支持者认为核能事故的危害比起全球变暖的危害要小。

定位 由关键词Nuclear supporters,less challenging,global warming定位到原文划线句。

51. Recent extreme weather made President Obama feel it is urgent to address climate change.

译文 近期的极端天气让奥巴马总统感到应对气候变化的任务越来越紧迫。

定位 由关键词extreme weather,Obama,climate change定位到原文划线句。

52. Keystone pipeline should be rejected because it is a signal to reduce fossil fuels.

译文 重点输油管道项目应该被否决,因为这是减少化石燃料的信号。

定位 由关键词Keystone pipeline定位到原文划线句。

53. Since Obama signed a 2009 executive order to cut waste, the federal government has taken the lead in saving energy.

译文 自从奥巴马总统在2009年下令减少废气排放之后,联邦政府一直是节能方面的领导者。

定位 关键词0bama,2009 executive order,cut waste,lead定位到原文划线句。

54. Lower carbon emission will be most likely to happen if research in new energy resources succeeds.

译文 如果新能源研究成功,碳排放很有可能会獭少。

定位 由关键词new energy定位到原文划线句。

55. F)Compared with turning to new energy, America prefers carbon capture and store as a temporary measure.

译文 与新能源相比起来,美国更倾向于将碳获取与存储作为临时措施。

定位 由关键词carbon capture and store定位到原文划线句。

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