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2017-12-16 21:28   来源:正保外语教育网       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

The pacific island nation of Palau has become home to the sixth largest marine sanctuary in the world. the new marine reserve.Now the largest in the pacific, will  26  no fishing or mining.Palau also established the world's first shark sanctuary in 2009.
The tiny island nation has set aside 500,000 square kilometres-80 percent-of its maritime   27  ,for full protection that' s the highest percentage of an  28   economic zone devoted to marine conservation by any  country in the world. the remaining 20 percent of the palau seas will be reserved for local fishing by individuals and small-scale   29   fishing businesses with limited exports.
"island 30- have been among the hardest hit by the threats facing the ocean, "said President Tommy Remengesau jr. in a statement. "creating this sanctuary is a bold move that the people of Palau recognise as  31   to our survival. we want to lead the way in restoring the health of the ocean for future generations.
Palau has only been an   32   nation for twenty years and has a strong history of environmen-tal is home to one of the worlds finest marine ecosystems, with more than 1, 300 species of fish and 700 species of coral.
Senator Hokkons Baules lead 33- of the Palau National marine sanctuary act, said the sanctuary willhelp build a   34  future for the palauan people by honoring the conservation traditions of our past". these include the centuries-old custom of"", where leaders would call a temporary stop to fishing for key species in order to give fish  35   an opportunity to replenish(补充). 
A)allocate           I)permit
B)celebrities        J)secure
C)commercial         K)solitary
D)communities        L)spectacle
E)essential          M)sponsor
F)exclusive          N)stocks
G)independent        O)territory

26. I) permit
permit no doing不允许做。

27. O) territory
maritime territory领海。

28. F) exclusive
an exclusive  economic zone  一个专属经济区。

29. C) commercial
commercial fishing businesses商业捕鱼的企业。

30. D) communities

31. E) essential
essential to our survival  对我们的生存至关重要。

32. G) independent
an independent nation一个独立的国家。

33. M) sponsor

34. J) secure
a secure future  一个安全的未来。

35. N) stocks存储。

Data sharing: an open mind on open date
[A] It is a movement building steady momentum: a call to make research data, software code and experimental methods publicly available and transparent. a spirit of openness is gaining acceptance in the science community, and is the only way, say advocates, to address a'crisis' incience whereby too few findings are successfully reproduced. furthermore, they say, it is the best way for researchers to gather the range of observations that are necessary to speed up discoveries or to identify large-scale trends.
[B] the open-data shift poses a confusing problem for junior researchers. on the one hand,the drive to share is gathering official steam. since 2013, global scientific bodies have begun to back politics that support increased public access to reseach.on the other hand,scientists disagree about how much and when they should share date,and they debate whether sharing it  is more likely to accelerate science and make it more robust, or to introduce vulnerabilities and more journals and make it more robust,or to introduce vulnerabilities and more journal and  funders adopt data-sharing requirements, and as a growing number of enthusiasts call for more openness, junior researchers must find their place between adopters and those who continue to hold out, even as they strive to launch their own careers.
[C] one key challenge facing young scientists is how to be open without becoming scientifically vulnerable. they must determine the risk of jeopardizing a job offer or a collaboration prosal from those who are wary of-or unfamiliar with -open science. and they must learn How to capitalize on the movement's benefits such as opportunities for more citations and a way to build a reputation without the need for conventional metrics, such as publication in high-impact journals.
[D] some fields have embraced open data more than others. researchers in psychology, a field rocked by findings of irreproducibility in the past few years, have been especially vocal sup-porters of the drive for more-open science.A few psychology journals have created incentives to increase interest in repar open science. a few psychology journals have created incentives porters of the drive for me lucible science -for example, by affixing an",badge to articles that clearly state where data are available. according to social psychologist brian nose executive director of the center for open science, the average data-sharing rate for the journal Psychological science, which uses the badges, increased tenfold to 38% from 2013 to 2015.
[E] funders, too, are increasingly adopting an open-data policy .several strongly ergement,and some require,a date-management  plan that makes data available .The us national science foundation  is among these, some philanthropic (慈善的) funders, including the bill Gates foundation in seattle, washington, and the wellcome trust in london, alopen data from their grant recipients.
[F]  but many young researchers, especially those who have not been mentored in open science .are uncertain about whether to share or to stay private.Graduate students and postdoes,who often are working on their lab head's grant may have no choice if their supervisor or another senior opposes sharing.
[G]  some fear that the potential impact of sharing is too high, especially at the early stages of a career." Everybody has a scary story about someone getting scooped(被抢先),” says new York university astronomer david hogg. those fears may be a factor in a lingering hesitation to share data even when publishing in journals that mandate it.
[H]  researchers at small labs or at institutions focused on teaching arguably have the most to lose when sharing hard-won data. ""with my institution and teaching load, i don't have postdocs and grad students", says terry mcglynn, a tropical biologist at california state university,Dominguez hills. "the stakes are higher to share data because it's a bigger fraction of hats happening in my lab.

[I]  researchers also point to the time sink that is involved in preparing data for others to view.Once the data and associated materials appear in a repository(存储库 ), answering questions and handling complaints can take many hours.
[J]  the time investment can present other problems. in some cases, says data scientist karthik Ram, it may be difficult for junior researchers to embrace openness when senior colleagues many of whom head selection and promotion teesht ridicule what they may view as misplaced energies. "i've heard this recently -that embracing the idea of open datad code makes traditional academics uncomfortable, "says ram. "the concem seems to be that open advocates don't spend their time being as productive as possible."
[ K]an open-science stance can also add complexity to a collaboration. kate ratliff, who studies social attitudes at the university of florida, gainesville, says that it can seem as if there are two camps in a field-those who care about open science and those who don't . " there a new  area to navigate-'are you cool with the fact that i'll want to make the data open?'-when talking with somebody about an interesting research idea, "she says.
[L]  despite complications and concerns, the upsides of sharing can be significant. for example,when information is uploaded to a repository, a digital object identifier(DOI)is assigned.
[M] Scientists can use a DOT to publish each step of the research life cycle, not just the final paper. In so doing, they can potentially get three citations- one each for the data and addition to the paper itself. and although some say that citations for software or data have little currency in academia, they can have other benefits.

36 M根据M段最后一句可以得出答案。


38.D根据D段A few psychology journals have created incentives to increase interest in repar open science.可以得出答案。



41.M 根据M段第一句可以得出答案。



44.I 根据I段最后一句可以得出答案。

45.F 根据F段最后一句可以得出答案。










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