Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on invention. Your essay should include the importance of invention and measures to be taken to encourage invention.You are required to write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on creation. Your essay should include the importance of creation and measures to be taken to encourage creation. You are required to write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
Directions: Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on innovation. Your essay should include the importance of innovation and measures to be taken to encourage innovation.You are required to write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
Part II Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)
Section A Conversation
W: Professor Henderson could you give us a brief overview of what you do, where you work and your main area of research?
M: Well the Center for Climate Research where I work links the science of climate change to issues around economics and policy.
Some of our research is to do with the likely impacts of climate change and all of the associated risks.
W: And how strong is the evidence that climate change is happening that it's really something we need to be worried about.
M: Well most of the science of climate change particularly that to do with global warming is simply fact.
But other aspects of the science are less certain or at least more disputed.
And so we're really talking about risk what the economics tells us is that it's probably cheaper to avoid climate change to avoid the risk than it has to deal with the likely consequences.
W: So what are we doing? What can we do about it?
M: Well I would argue that we need to develop the science specifically to understand the likely impacts of climate change in different contexts.
As I said we need to understand the best ways of avoiding climate change and this will involve a huge transition to low carbon energy systems and the transition is a tremendous priority.
And for this to happen, we may need action on a global scale from a political perspective.
We need to understand the terms on which major countries like China and the USA might sign up to a global agreement because at the moment we don't have that consensus.
M: And we also need to plan ahead so that we're in a position to deal with the likely levels of climate change which are already inevitable and even more so to for the levels that are likely if we don't get those global agreements.
Q1. What does Professor H say about his main area of research?
A It tries to predict the possible trends of global climate change.
B It studies the impact of global climate change on people’s lives.
C It links the science of climate change to economic and policy issues.
D It focuses on the efforts countries can make to deal with global warning.
Q2. What does Professor H say about climate change?
A It will take a long time before a consensus is reached on its impact.
B It would be more costly to deal with its consequences than to avoid it.
C It is the most pressing issue confronting all countries.
D It is bound to cause endless disputes among nations.
Q3. What does Professor H say is a top priority in combating climate change?
A The transition to low-carbon energy systems.
B The cooperation among world major powers.
C The signing of a global agreement.
D The raising of people’s awareness.
Q4. What does Professor H advise us to do to better deal with climate change?
A Carry out more research on it.
B Cut down energy consumption.
C Plan well in advance.
D Adopt new technology.
W: I have many business English students. When I teach the classroom, we often end up talking about things like success and what leads to success. And it's interesting that many of them mention the element of luck.
W: Luck is important to success. But since you've seen that fantastic video on the TED Talks website by Richard St. John, he doesn't mention luck at all.
M: Well, I'm a firm believer that people can make their own luck. I mean what people regard as luck, you can actually create, to a degree.
W: Sure. I think a lot of what people consider luck is attributed to how you respond to the opportunities that come your way.
M: Yes. Very good point.
W: Seizing the opportunities. But was there any point in the video that you thought was particularly interesting?
M: Yes. Actually there was. Something very impressive to me as many people think that luck is important and that natural talent is something you must have in order to be successful. And in the video we saw, the point about getting good at something is not about having some natural talent. It's all about practice, practice, practice.
W: Definitely yeah. Natural talent helps in some way but at the end of the day you really do need to work hard and get really really good at what you do.
W: I thought one interesting thing in the video was the idea of passion being so important and that people who really love what they do. Of course you're going to want to work harder and put the time and effort into it. And the funny thing is that if you love what you do and are really passionate about it and work really hard, the money kind of comes automatically.
Q5. What are the speakers mainly talking about?
A) When luck plays a role.
B) What determines success.
C) Whether practice makes perfect.
D) How important natural talent is.
Q6. What is the woman’s view of luck?
A) It knocks at your door only once in a while.
B) It is something that no one can possibly create.
C) It comes naturally out of one’s self-confidence.
D) It means being good at seizing opportunities.
Q7. What is the chief point the TED Talks video makes?
Luck rarely contributes to a person’s success.
B) One must have natural talent to be successful.
C) One should always be ready to seize opportunities.
D) Practice is essential to becoming good at something.
Q8. What does the woman think is the funny thing in the TED Talks video?
A) Putting time and effort into fun things is profitable.
B) People who love what they do care little about money.
C) Being passionate about work can make one wealthy.
D) People in need of money work hard automatically.
Section B Passage
Devil’s Tower, the first national monument in America, could almost be mistaken for the stump of an enormous tree. Its sheer rock sides sweep up from a broad base until they cut off abruptly at the flat summit. Rising more than 1,000 feet in the middle of the gently rolling plains of Wyoming, the massive column of rock, looks as though it was dropped down into this location from a different time and place.
In a sense, it was, Devil’s Tower is a relic of the past. When the melt rock of the earth’s core forced its way to the surface to form the throat of a volcano, as the centuries passed, the rock cooled and hardened, shrinking and cracking into long columns, born in fire and fury. Devil’s Tower was then shaped by the slow, gentle work of wind and water. The outer layers of the volcano were worn away until the hard core stood completely exposed.
It is small wonder that an Indian legend described Devil’s Tower as being formed by supernatural powers. The legend says that when seven girls were attacked by bears, they took refuge on top of a small rock, and they appealed to the Rock God for help. The God caused the rock to grow and to lift the girls far above the ground, while it sides were scored by the claws of the angry bears. Even today, says the legend, the girls can be seen above the towering rock. As seven shining stars in the night sky.
What does the Devil’s Tower look like?
A) The stump of a giant tree.
B) A huge piece of rock.
C) The peak of a mountain.
D) A tall chimney.
What cause the volcano’s outer layers to wear away?
A) Human activity.
B) Wind and water.
C) Chemical processes.
D) Fire and fury.
What does the Indian legend say about the Devil’s Tower?
.A) It is a historical monument.
B) It was built in ancient times.
C) It is Indians’ sacred place for worship.
D) It was created by supernatural powers.
12. How did the Rock God help the seven girl in the Indian legend?
A) By sheltering them in a cave.
B) By killing the attacking bears.
C) By lifting them well above the ground.
D) By taking them to the top of a mountain.
It’s no accident that most gas stations have convenience stores attached. Few of us can fill up the tank without buying a few snacks, cigarettes，soft drinks or other items we can live without. I deserve it. That’s what hard working men and women say to justify their lavish vacations, big stereo systems or regular restaurant meals. They do deserve such indulgences. However, they also deserve a home of their own--a secure retirement and freedom from worrying about unpaid bills. No one should have to live with what a Texas mother described as constant stress，tension, even fear about money. Sadly the pleasure that comes from extravagances often disappears long before the bills do. The video camera that one single mother bought for a special occasion, for example, is not much fun now. She’s figured out that it will take her another three years to pay it off at $30 a month. And the New Yorkers who spent a bundle on an outdoor hot tub now admit they rarely use it, because we can't afford to heat it in winter. The solution set priorities add up the annual cost of each item. Then consider what else you can buy with the same money. That will help you decide which items are really worth it. One Chicago woman, for example, discovered that daily lunches with coworkers cost her $2000 a year; she decided to take lunch to work instead. “I now put $20 a week into my vacation fund and another 20 into retirement savings, she says, those mean more to me than lunch”.
Q13. What does the speaker say about drivers who stop at gas stations?
A)They will buy something from the convenience stores.
B) They will take advantage of the time to rest a while.
C) They will have their vehicles washed or serviced.
D) They will pick up some souvenirs or gift items.
Q14. What does the speaker say about extravagances?
A) They can bring only temporary pleasures.
B) They are meant for the extremely wealthy.
C) They should be done away with altogether.
D) They may eventually drive one to bankruptcy.
Q15. What does a speaker want to show by the example of the Chicago woman?
A) A good way to socialize is to have daily lunch with one’s colleagues.
B) Retirement savings should come first in one’s family budgeting.
C) A vacation will be affordable if one saves 20 dollars a week.
D) Small daily savings can make a big difference in one’s life.
Section C -- Recording One
Let’s say you start to brain storm a list of all the emotions you ever experienced. Just for fun, try it now.
What’s on your list? Chances are, you included things like: happy, sad, excited, angry, afraid, grateful, proud, scared, confused, stressed, relaxed and amazed. Now sort your list into two categories: positive emotions and negative emotions.
Feeling both positive and negative emotions is a natural part of being human. We might use the word “negative” to describe more difficult emotions but it does not mean those emotions are bad or we shouldn’t have them. Still, most people were probably rather feel a positive emotion than a negative one. It’s likely you prefer to feel happy instead of sad or confident instead of insecure.
What matters is how our emotions are balanced. How much of each type of the emotion positive or negative we experience.
Negative emotions warn us of threats or challenges that we may need to deal with. For example, fear can alert us to possible danger, it’s a signal that we might need to protect ourselves. Angry feelings warn us that someone is stepping on our toes, crossing a boundary or violating our trust. Anger can be a signal that we might have to act on our own behalf.
Negative emotions focus our awareness. They help us to zero in on a problem so we can deal with it. But too many negative emotions can make us feel overwhelmed, anxious, exhausted or stressed out. When negative emotions are out of balance, problems might seem too big to handle.
The more we dwell on our negative emotions, they more negative we begin to feel. Focusing on negativity just keeps it going.
Positive emotions balance out negative ones, but they have other powerful benefits, too. Instead of narrowing our focus, like negative emotions do, positive emotions affect our brains in ways that increase our awareness, attention and memory. They help us take in more information, hold several ideas in mind at once and understand how different ideas relate to each other.
When positive emotions open us up to new possibilities, we are more able to learn and build on our skills. That leads to doing better on tasks and tests.
People who have plenty of positive emotions in their everyday lives tend to be happier, healthier, learn better and get along well with others.
Q16. What does the speaker say about negative emotions?
A) They should be done away with.
B) They are necessary in our lives.
C) They enrich our experience.
D) They are harmful to health.
Q17.What happens to people whose negative emotions are out of balance?
A) They feel stressed out even without any challenges in life.
B) They feel too overwhelmed to deal with life’s problems.
C) They are anxious to free themselves from life’s troubles.
D) They are exhausted even without doing any heavy work.
Q18. How do positive emotions affect us?
A) They expand our mind.
B) They prolong our lives.
C) They narrow our focus.
D) They lessen our burdens.
Section C -- Recording Two
In the past few months, I've been travelling for weeks at a time with only one suitcase of clothes. One day, I was invited to an important event, and I wanted to wear something special for it. I looked through my suitcase but couldn't find anything to wear. I was lucky to be at the technology conference then, and I had access to 3D printers. So I quickly designed a skirt on my computer, and I loaded the file on the printer. It just printed the pieces overnight. The next morning, I just took all the pieces, assembled them together in my hotel room, and this is actually the skirt that I'm wearing right now.
So it wasn't the first time that I printed clothes. For my senior collection at fashion design school, I decided to try and 3D print an entire fashion collection from my home. The problem was that I barely knew anything about 3D printing, and I had only nine months to figure out how to print five fashionable looks.
I always felt most creative when I worked from home. I love experimenting with new materials, and I always tried to develop new techniques to make the most unique textiles for my fashion projects.
One summer break, I came here to New York for an internship at a fashion house in Chinatown. We worked on two incredible dresses that were 3D printed. They were amazing -- like you can see here. But I had a few problems with them. They were made from hard plastics and that's why they were very breakable. The models couldn't sit in them, and they even got scratched from the plastics under their arms.
So now, the main challenge was to find the right material for printing clothes with, I mean the material you feed the printer with. The breakthrough came when I was introduced to Filaflex, which is a new kind of printing material. It's strong, yet very flexible. And with it, I was able to print the first garment, a red jacket that had the word "freedom" ded into it. And actually, you can easily download this jacket, and change the word to something else. For example, your name or your sweetheart's name.
So I think in the future, materials will evolve, and they will look and feel like fabrics we know today, like cotton or silk.
Q19. What does the speaker say about the skirt she is wearing now?
A) It is not easily breakable.
B) It came from a 3D printer.
C) It represents the latest style.
D) It was made by a fashion designer.
Q20. When did the speaker start experimenting with 3D printing?
A) When she had just graduated from her college.
B) When she attended a conference in New York
C) When she was studying at a fashion design school.
D) When she attended a fashion show nine months ago.
Q21. What was the problem with the material the speaker worked on at a New York fashion house?
A) It was difficult to print.
B) It was hard to come by.
C) It was hard and breakable.
D) It was extremely expensive.
Q22. What does the speaker say about Filaflex?
A)It is the latest model of a 3D printer.
B)It is a plastic widely used in 3D printing.
C)It gives fashion designers room for imagination.
D)It marks a breakthrough in printing material.
Section C -- Recording Three
Welcome to the third lecture in our series on the future of small businesses in Europe. The purpose of today's lecture, as you have seen from the title and the abstract, is to examine in more detail the problems facing small and medium-sized enterprises which arise at least in part from having to adapt to rapid advances in technology. And I want to look at these both from a financial and from a personnel point of view and to offer a few hopefully effective solutions.
Here we have three of the most important problems facing small businesses that I want to look at today.
First, keeping up with the pace of technological change. Recruiting high quality staff and at a time of skills shortages in IT as a whole and in a highly competitive market. And the issue of retaining staff once they've been recruited and trained. Now, all of these problems involves significant costs for all businesses. But there are particularly challenging issue for small and medium-sized enterprises. And those costs would vary depending on the size and scale of the businesses.
So let's come to the first issue on our list which is keeping pace with developments in technology. Now we all know that the technology industry is intensely competitive with new products being launched all year round as the various companies strive to compete with each other, rather than, say once a year or every couple of years. And this is a real headache for smaller businesses. So, let's imagine we have a small company which is doing ok. It's just about making a profit and it spends most of its income on the overheads. So for a company in this situation, keeping up to date with the latest technology, even if it's only for the benefit of key staff, this can be hugely expensive.
So in my view, some creative thinking needs to come in here to find ways to help companies in this situation to stay ahead in the game, but at the same time, to remain technologically competitive.
Well, there's a possibility that small groups of companies with similar requirements but not directly competing with each other, they could share the cost of upgrading in much the same way as, let's say, an intranet operates within large organizations. In fact, cost sharing could be a very practical solution, especially in times of financial difficulty. If there's a downward pressure on costs, because of a need for investment in other areas, I would argue that this is a perfectly feasible solution.
23. What does the speaker say about the problems facing small and medium sized enterprises?
A)They raise from the advances in technology.
B)they have not been examined in detail so far.
C)They are easy to solve with modern technology.
D)they can't be solved without government support.
24. What does the speaker say about the technology industry?
A)It is attractive to entrepreneurs.
B)It focuses on new products.
C)It demands huge incestment
D)It is intensely competitice
25. What is a practical solution to the problems of small and medium-sized businesses?
A)Cooperation with big companies.
B)In-service training of IT personal.
C)Recruiting more qualified staff.
D)Sharing of costs with each other.
【解析】根据对话中Professor Henderson的回答"Well the Center for Climate Research where I work links the science of climate change to issues around economics and policy."可知答案选C。
【解析】根据对话中Professor Henderson的回答"...it's probably cheaper to avoid climate change to avoid the risk than it has to deal with the likely consequences."可知答案选B。
【解析】根据对话中Professor Henderson的回答"...this will involve a huge transition to low carbon energy systems and the transition is a tremendous priority."可知答案选A。
【解析】根据对话中Professor Henderson的回答"And we also need to plan ahead so that…"可知答案选C。
【解析】根据听力材料"...we often end up talking about things like success and what leads to success.And it's interesting that…"可知答案选B。
【解析】根据听力材料中女士的回答"I think a lot of what people consider luck is attributed to how you respond to the opportunities that come your way"可知答案选D。
【解析】根据听力材料中男士的回答"...It's all about practice, practice, practice."可知答案选D。
【解析】根据听力材料中女士的回答"And the funny thing is that if you love what you do and are really passionate about it and work really hard, the money kind of comes automatically"可知答案选C。
【解析】根据听力材料"Devil's Tower…could almost be mistaken for the stump of an enormous tree."可知答案选A。
【解析】根据听力材料“Devil’s Tower was then shaped by the slow, gentle work of wind and water.”可知答案选B。
【解析】根据听力材料"It is small wonder that an Indian legend described Devil's Tower as being formed by supernatural powers."可知答案选D。
【解析】根据听力材料"The God caused the rock to grow and to lift the girls far above the ground…"可知答案选C。
【解析】根据听力材料"It's no accident that most gas stations have convenience stores attached. Few of us can fill up the tank without buying…"可知答案选A。
【解析】根据听力材料"the pleasure that comes from extravagances…"可知答案选A。
【解析】根据听力材料"...Then consider what else you can buy with the same money.…"可知答案选D。
【解析】根据听力材料"Feeling both positive and negative emotions is a natural part of being human."可知答案选B。
【解析】根据听力材料"When negative emotions are out of balance, problems might seem too big to handle."可知答案选B。
【解析】根据听力材料"People who have plenty of positive emotions in their everyday lives tend to be happier, healthier, learn better and get along well with others."可知答案选A。
【解析】根据听力材料"I had access to 3D printers…this is actually the skirt that I'm wearing right now"可知答案选B。
【解析】根据听力材料"For my senior collection at fashion design school, I decided to try and 3D print an entire fashion collection from my home."可知答案选C。
【解析】根据听力材料"They were made from hard plastics and that's why they were very breakable."可知答案选C。
【解析】根据听力材料"The breakthrough came when I was introduced to Filaflex, which is a new kind of printing material."可知答案选D。
【解析】根据听力材料可知源自科技的进步，答案选They arise from the advances in technology.
【解析】根据听力材料可知竞争很激烈，答案选It is intensively competitive.
【解析】根据听力材料可知应该是成本共享，答案选Sharing of costs with each other.
26. [O] vanished
27. [M] undergone
28. [D] expanding
29. [K] survived
30. [H] process
31. [L] terminals
32. [E] industrialized
33. [F] perceived
34. [B] conveniences
35. [G] practice
J 36. According to Chinese officials, their activities in Antarctica lay greater emphasis on scientific research.
C 37. Efforts to create one of the world's largest ocean sanctuaries failed because of Russia's obstruction.
E 38. With several monitoring stations operating in Antarctica, Russia is trying hard to counter America's dominance in the field of worldwide navigational facilities.
G 39. According to geologists' estimates, Antarctica has enormous reserves of oil and natural gas.
D 40. It is estimated that Antarctica boasts of the richest reserves of fresh water on earth.
I 41. The demand for energy resources may compel renegotiation of Antarctica's treaties before their expiration.
B 42. Many countries are racing against each other to increase their business and strategic influence on Antarctica.
H 43. Antarctica's harsh natural conditions constitute huge obstacles to the exploitation of its resources.
Q 44. With competition from many countries, Antarctica is no longer dominated by the traditional white nations.
L 45. American scientists complain about lack of sufficient money and equipment for their expansion in Antarctica.
【解析】题干问的是烟瘾大的人怎样看待烟草包装。根据文章第一段"Any veteran nicotine addict will testify that fancy packaging plays no role in the decision to keep smoking."就可以选出正确选项D，“香烟的包装对于老烟枪选择戒烟与否而言几乎没有任何影响”。其中文章的"veteran nicotine addict"对应题干的"chain smokers"。
【解析】根据文章第二段第一句"But that isn't why the government…has agreed to legislate for standardized packaging."（这并不是政府同意针对香烟的包装立法），及第三段的最后一句"Since tobacco is one of the biggest causes of premature death in the UK, a measure that tames the habits even by a fraction is worth trying"（在英国由于吸烟而导致早产儿大批死亡，英国政府帮这些老烟枪们改变吸烟的嗜好的任何尝试都是值得的），可推断答案选A“英国政府就香烟包装的标准化通过了法案”。
【解析】根据文章第三段"This approach has led over time to a fall in smoking with numbers having roughly halved since the 1970s. Evidence from Australia suggests plain packaging pushes society further along that road."这一方法使得吸烟者数量锐减，尤其是对澳大利亚而言，这一方法颇见成效。推断答案选B.
【解析】根据文章第四段"David Cameron's election campaign…(David Cameron denied…in legislative programme)"及最后一句话中"now we are told Members of…is dissolved in March"可知，首相Cameron否认在其顾问在外的经济利益与法案改变之间有联系，并指出将会让国会议员投票。由此推断答案选A.
【解析】根据文章第五段最后一句"His attitude to state intervention…at supermarket check-outs fueled obesity."推断答案选C.由"checkouts fueled obesity"体现“检测出导致肥胖”。
As the life quality improves, taking holiday is playing an increasingly important role in the life of Chinese people. In the past, much of Chinese people’s life was spent on making a living, so we were always denied the chances to go out for a vacation. Nevertheless, the rapid development in Chinese tourism as a result of a flourishing economy, which also leads to the rise of affluent middle class has seen an unprecedented boom in travelling. Chinese people not only choose to travel at home but also seek to embark on a foreign excursion. During the National Day period, the total tourism consumption reached over 40 billion yuan. It is estimated by the WTO that by 2020, China will be the largest tourism country which will witness a rapid increase in the outbound tourism expenditures.
With China’s booming economy, the number of people who learn Chinese grows rapidly. It makes Chinese become one of the favorite languages that people would like to learn. Recently, Chinese universities rise significantly in world university rankings. Since the significant progress made in Chinese education, it is no wonder that China has been one of the most favored places for overseas students. In 2015, nearly 40,0000 international students swarmed into the Chinese market. Not confined to Chinese language and culture, the subjects they choose to learn also include science and engineering. Although the global market is still dominated by US and UK, China is striving to catch up.
The color of Yellow, because of its unique symbolic meaning, is very important in Chinese culture. In feudal society, it represents the rulers’ power and authority. At that time, the color was exclusively used for the emperor—the royal palace was painted yellow and the imperial robe was always yellow. However, the ordinary people were forbidden to wear clothes of the color yellow. In China, it also signifies harvest. The fields grow golden yellow in autumn when the crops mature. People celebrate the harvest cheerfully.