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2017-06-17 18:09   来源:外语教育网       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |


Well my current research is really about consumer behavior. So recently I've looked at young people's drinking and it's obviously a major concern to Government at the moment.

I've also looked at how older people are represented in the media; again, it's of major current interest with older people becoming a much larger proportion of UK and indeed world society.

I'm also interested in how consumers operate online, and how that online behavior might be different from how they operate offline when they go to the shops.

Well, I think that the important thing here is to actually understand what's happening from the consumer's perspective. One of the things that businesses and indeed Government organizations often fail to do is to really see what is happening from the consumer's perspective.

For example, in the case of young people's drinking, one of the things that I've identified is that drinking for people say between the ages of 18 and 24 is all about the social activity.

A lot of the Government advertising has been about individual responsibility, but actually understanding that drinking is very much about the social activity and finding ways to help young people get home safely and not end up in hospital is one of the things that we've tried to present there.

The key thing about consumer behavior is that it's very much about how consumers change. Markets always change faster than marketing; so we have to look at what consumers are doing.

Currently I teach consumer behavior to undergraduates in their second year and we look at all kinds of things in consumer behavior and particularly how consumers are presented in advertising.

So they get involved by looking at advertising and really critically assessing the consumer behavior aspects of it and getting involved sometimes doing primary research.

For example, last year my students spent a week looking at their own purchasing and analyzed it in detail from shopping to the relationship that they have with their retail banks and their mobile phone providers. I think they found it very useful and it also helped them identify just what kind of budgets they had too. The fact of the matter is that there's a whole range of interesting research out there and I think as the years go on, there's going to be much more for us to consider and certainly much more for students to become involved in.

16. What is the speaker currently doing?

17. What has the speaker found about young people's drinking?

18. What does the speaker say that his students did last year?


Sweden was the first European country to print and use paper money, but it may soon do away with physical currencies.

Banks can save a lot of money and avoid regulatory headaches by moving to a cash-free system, and they can also avoid bank robberies, theft, and dirty money.

Claer Barrett, the editor of Financial Times Money, says the Western world is headed toward a world without physical currency.

"Andy Holder — the chief eco|nomist at The Bank of England — suggested that the UK move towards a government-backed digital currency. But does a cashless society really make good economic sense?

"The fact that cash is being drawn out of society, is less a feature of our everyday lives, and the ease of electronic payments — is this actually making us spend more money without realizing it?"

Barrett wanted to find out if the absence of physical currency does indeed cause a person to spend more, so she decided to conduct an experiment a few months ago.

She decided that she was going to try to just use cash for two weeks to make all of her essential purchases and see what that would do to her spending. She found she did spend a lot less money because it is incredibly hard to predict how much cash one is going to need — she was forever drawing money out of cash points. Months later, she was still finding cash stuffed in her trouser pockets and the pockets of her handbags.

During the experiment, Barrett took a train ride. On the way, there was an announcement that the restaurant car was not currently accepting credit cards. The train cars were filled with groans because many of the passengers were traveling without cash.

"It underlines just how much things have changed in the last generation," Barrett says. "My parents, when they were younger, used to budget by putting money into envelopes — they'd get paid and they'd immediately separate the cash into piles and put them in envelopes, so they knew what they had to spend week by week. It was a very effective way for them to keep track of their spending. Nowadays, we're all on credit cards, we're doing online purchases, and money is kind of becoming a less physical and more imaginary type of thing that we can't get our hands around."

Q19. What do we learn about Sweden?

Q20. What did Claer Barrett want to find out with her experiment?

Q21. What did Claer Barrett find on her train ride?

Q22. How did people of the last generation budget their spending?

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