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2017年6月大学英语四级考试真题及答案解析(第三套完整版)

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2017年6月大学英语四级考试真题及答案解析(第一套完整版)

2017年6月大学英语四级考试真题及答案解析(第二套完整版)

Part I Writing

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an advertisement on your campus website to sell a computer you used at college. Your advertisement may include its brand, specifications features, condition and price, and your contact information. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.

【参考范文】

Your Ultimate Choice---the Ultimate Computer

Do you need a computer in the new semester? Still depressed for not being able to afford a new computer? Good news for you! My computer may be an available option for you to take into consideration.

To begin with, it’s an Apple laptop which was bought two years ago at the price of 10,000 RMB. It is now in good condition and fully functional. Besides, my laptop is portable so that you can take it to anywhere you want. The storage space is big enough for you to do any assignments, including editing and drawing. Finally, with the dual-core processor and high-performance video card, it can be unimpeded when you play online games and watch videos.

So if you are eager to have a computer of your own, please do not hesitate to call me at 1234567. I will offer you a 50% discount!

【解析】“available”意思为“可获得的”;“take into consideration”意思为“考虑”;“storage space”意思为“存储空间”;“dual-core processor”意思为“双核处理器”;“unimpeded”意思为“畅通无阻的”。

Part II Listening Comprehension

与第一套相同。

Part III Reading Comprehension

Section A

Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

Questions 26 to 35 are based on the following passage.

The method for making beer has changed over time. Hops (啤酒花), for example, which give many a modem beer its bitter flavor, are a __26__ recent addition to the beverage. This was first mentioned in reference to brewing in the ninth century. Now, researchers have found a __27__ ingredient in residue (残留物)from 5000-year-old beer brewing equipment. While digging two pits at a site in the central plains of China, scientists discovered fragments from pots and vessels. The different shapes of the containers __28__ they were used to brew, filter, and store beer. They may be ancient “beer-making tools”,and the earliest __29__ evidence of beer brewing in China, the researchers reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. To __30__ that theory, the team examined the yellowish, dried __31__ inside the vessels. The majority of the grains, about 80%, were from cereal crops like barley (大麦)and about 10% were bits of roots __32__ lily, which would have made the beer sweeter, the scientists say. Barley was an unexpected find: the crop was domesticated in Western Eurasia and didn’t become a __33__ food in central China until about 2,000 years ago, according to the researchers. Based on that timing, they indicate barley may have __34__ in the region not as food, but as __35__ material for beer brewing.

A) arrived B) consuming C) direct D) exclusively E) including F) inform G) raw H) reached I) relatively J) remains K) resources L) staple M) surprising N) suggest O) test

26. 【答案】I

【解析】分析句子结构,由空格前的冠词a和空格后的形容recent可知,空格处应填入一个副词来修饰recent。根据语义,可知relatively更为合适。故本题选I。

27. 【答案】M

【解析】由空格前的冠词a和空格后的名词ingredient可知,空格处应填入一个形容词来修饰ingredient。根据句子意思可知,填入surprising最为合适。故本题选M。

28. 【答案】N

【解析】分析句子结构,空格处可能缺少一个谓语动词,以引导后面的宾语从句。根据语意可知,填入suggest最为合适。故本题选N。

29. 【答案】C

【解析】空格处缺少一个形容词,与earliest一同修饰名词evidence。再根据语意可知,填入direct更为合适。故本题选C。

30. 【答案】O

【解析】空格处应填入一个动词原形。根据句意可知填入test最为合适。故本题选0。

31. 【答案】J

【解析】由空格前的形容词dried可知空格处应填入一个名词。根据语意可知remains最为合适。故本题选J。

32. 【答案】E

【解析】由空格前的about 10% were bits of roots以及空格后的lily,再根据句意可知,此处填入介詞including最为适合。故本题选E。

33. 【答案】L

【解析】根据语义,这里应填入staple—词,staple food表示“主食”的意思。故本题应选L。

34. 【答案】A

【解析】分析句子可知该从句为主谓结构,空格只可能和其前的may have组成谓语动词,根据语意可知填入arrived最为合适。故本题选A。

35. 【答案】G

【解析】空格处应填入一个形容词来修饰后面的material,根据语义可知填入raw最为合适,故本题选G。

Section B

Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

Team spirit

[A] Teams have become the basic building blocks of organisations. Recruitment advertisements routinely call for “team players' Business schools grade their students in part on their performance in group projects. Office managers knock down walls to encourage team building. Teams are as old as civilisation, of course: even Jesus had 12 co-workers. But a new report by Deloitte, “Global Human Capital Trends”,based on a survey of more than 7,000 executives in over 130 countries, suggests that the fashion for teamwork has reached a new high. Almost half of those surveyed said their companies were either in the middle of restructuring or about to embark on (开始)it; and for the most part, restructuring meant putting more emphasis on teams.

[B] Companies are abandoning conventional functional departments and organising employees into cross- disciplinary teams that focus on particular products, problems or customers. These teams are gaining more power to run their own affairs. They are also spending more time working with each other rather than reporting upwards. Deloitte argues that a new organisational form is on the rise: a network of teams is replacing the conventional hierarchy (等级体制).

[C] The fashion for teams is driven by a sense that the old way of organising people is too rigid for both the modem marketplace and the expectations of employees. Technological innovation places greater value on agility (灵活性) John Chambers, chairman of Cisco Systems Inc., a worldwide leader in electronics products, says that “we compete against market transitions (过渡),not competitors. Product transitions used to take five or seven years; now they take one or two.” Digital technology also makes it easier for people to co-ordinate their activities without resorting to hierarchy. The “millennials” (千禧一代) who will soon make up half the workforce in rich countries were raised from nursery school onwards to work in groups.

[D] The fashion for teams is also spreading from the usual corporate suspects (such as GE and IBM) to some more unusual ones. The Cleveland Clinic, a hospital operator, has reorganised its medical staff into teams to focus on particular treatment areas; consultants, nurses and others collaborate closely instead of being separated by speciality (专业)and rank. The US Army has gone the same way. In his book, Team of Teams, General Stanley McChrystal describes how the army’s hierarchical structure hindered its operations during the early stages of the Iraq war. His solution was to learn something from the rebels it was fighting: decentralising authority to self-organising teams.

[E] A good rule of thumb is that as soon as generals and hospital administrators jump on a management bandwagon (追随一种管理潮流),it is time to ask questions. Leigh Thompson of Kellogg School of Management in Illinois warns that, “Teams are not always the answer—teams may provide insight, creativity and knowledge in a way that a person working independently cannot; but teamwork may also lead to confusion, delay and poor decision-making.” The late Richard Hackman of Harvard University once argued, “I have no question that when you have a team,the possibility exists that it will generate magic, producing something extraordinary... But don’t count on it.”

[F] Hackman (who died in 2013) noted that teams are hindered by problems of co-ordination and motivation that chip away at the benefits of collaboration. High-flyers (能干的人)who are forced to work in teams may be undervalued and free-riders empowered. Group-think may be unavoidable. In a study of 120 teams of senior executives, he discovered that less than 10% of their supposed members agreed on who exactly was on the team. If it is hard enough to define a team’s membership, agreeing on its purpose is harder still.

[G] Profound changes in the workforce are making teams trickier to manage. Teams work best if their members have a strong common culture. This is hard to achieve when, as is now the case in many big firms, a large proportion of staff are temporary contractors. Teamwork improves with time: America’s National Transportation Safety Board found that 73% of the incidents in its civil-aviation database occurred on a crew’s first day of flying together. However, as Amy Edmondson of Harvard points out, organisations increasingly use “team” as a verb rather than a noun: they form teams for specific purposes and then quickly disband them.

[H] The least that can be concluded from this research is that companies need to think harder about managing teams. They need to rid their minds of sentimentalism (感情用事):the most successful teams have leaders who are able to set an overall direction and take immediate action. They need to keep teams small and focused: giving in to pressure to be more “inclusive” is a guarantee of dysfunction. Jeff Bezos, Amazon’s boss, says that “If I see more than two pizzas for lunch, the team is too big”. They need to immunise teams against group-think: Hackman argued that the best ones contain “deviants” (离经叛道者)who are willing to do something that may be upsetting to others.

[I] A new study of 12,000 workers in 17 countries by Steelcase, a furniture-maker which also does consulting, finds that the best way to ensure employees are “engaged” is to give them more control over where and how they do their work-which may mean liberating them from having to do everything in collaboration with others.

[J] However, organisations need to learn something bigger than how to manage teams better: they need to be in the habit of asking themselves whether teams are the best tools for the job. Team-building skills are in short supply: Deloitte reports that only 12% of the executives they contacted feel they understand the way people work together in networks and only 21% feel confident in their ability to build cross-functional teams. Loosely managed teams can become hotbeds of distraction employees routinely complain that they can’t get their work done because they are forced to spend too much time in meetings or compelled to work in noisy offices. Even in the age of open-plan offices and social networks some work is best left to the individual.

36. Successful team leaders know exactly where the team should go and are able to take prompt action.

【答案】H

【解析】由“They need to rid their minds of sentimentalism: the most successful teams have leaders who are able to set an overall direction and take immediate action.”可得出答案。

37. Decentralisation of authority was also found to be more effective in military operations.

【答案】D

【解析】由“The US Army has gone the same way. In his book, Team of Teams, General Stanley McChrystal describes how the army’s hierarchical structure hindered its operations during the early stages of the Iraq war. His solution was to learn something from the rebels it was fighting: decentralising authority to self-organising teams.”可得出答案。

38. In many companies, the conventional form of organisation is giving way to a network of teams.

【答案】B

【解析】由“Deloitte argues that a new organizational form is on the rise: a network of teams is replacing the conventional hierarchy.”可知,答案为B。

39. Members of poorly managed teams are easily distracted from their work.

【答案】J

【解析】由“Loosely managed teams can become hotbeds of distraction---employees routinely complain that they can’t get their work done because they are forced to spend too much time in meetings or compelled to work in noisy offices.”可知,答案为J。

40. Teamwork is most effective when team members share the same culture.

【答案】G

【解析】由“Teams work best if their members have a strong common culture.”可知,答案为G。

41. According to a report by Deloitte, teamwork is becoming increasingly popular among companies.

【答案】A

【解析】由“But a new report by Deloitte, “Global Human Capital Trends”, based on a survey of more than 7,000 executives in over 130 countries, suggests that the fashion for teamwork has reached a new high.”可知,答案为A。

42. Some team members find it hard to agree on questions like membership and the team’s purpose.

【答案】F

【解析】由“If it is hard enough to define a team’s membership, agreeing on its purpose is harder still.”可知,答案为F。

43. Some scholars think teamwork may not always be reliable, despite its potential to work wonders.

【答案】E

【解析】由“The late Richard Hackman of Harvard University once argued, “I have no question that when you have a team, the possibility exists that it will generate magic, producing something extraordinary... But don’t count on it.””可知,答案为E。

44. To ensure employee’s commitment, it is advisable to give them more flexibility as to where and how they work.

【答案】I

【解析】由“A new study of 12,000 workers in 17 countries by Steelcase, a furniture-maker which also does consulting, finds that the best way to ensure employees are “engaged” is to give them more control over where and how they do their work-which may mean liberating them from having to do everything in collaboration with others.”可知,答案为I。

45. Product transitions take much less time now than in the past.

【答案】C

【解析】由“Product transitions used to take five or seven years; now they take one or two.”可知,答案为C。

Section C

Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.

Passage One

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

Urbanization — migration away from the suburbs to the central city — will be the biggest real estate trend in 2015, according to a new report.

The report says America’s urbanization will continue to be the most significant issue affecting the industry, as cities across the country imitate the walkability and transit-oriented development making cities like New York and San Francisco so successful.

As smaller cities copy the model of these “24-hour cities”,more affordable versions of these places will be created. The report refers to this as the coming of the “18-hour city”,and uses the term to refer to cities like Houston, Austin, Charlotte, and Nashville, which are “positioning themselves as highly competitive, in terms of livability, employment offerings, and recreational and cultural amenities.”

Another trend that looks significant in 2015 is that America’s largest population group, Millennials (千禧一代),will continue to put off buying a house. Apartments will retain their appeal for a while for Millennials, haunted by what happened to home-owning parents.

This trend will continue into the 2020s, the report projects. After that, survey respondents disagree over whether this generation will follow in their parents’ footsteps, moving to the suburbs to raise families, or will choose to remain in the urban core. The survey projects that this population cohort will evolve and segment over time, and warns against painting the generation with too broad a brush.

Another issue affecting real estate in the coming year will be America’s failing infrastructure. Most roads, bridges, transit, water systems, the electric grid, and communications networks were installed 50 to 100 years ago, and they are largely taken for granted until they fail.

The report’s writers state that America’s failure to invest in infrastructure impacts not only the health of the real-estate market, but also our ability to remain globally competitive.

Apart from the specific trends highlighted above, which cause some investors to worry, the report portrays an overall optimism borne by the recent healthy real-estate “upcycle” and improving economy. Seventy-four percent of the respondents surveyed report a “good to excellent” expectation of real-estate profitability in 2015. While excessive optimism can promote bad investment patterns, resulting in a real- estate “bubble”,the report’s writers downplay that potential outcome in that it has not yet occurred.

Some respondents to the Emerging Markets survey call the urbanization trend “oversubscribed”,and the report concedes that there do exist some edge cities and suburbs with promise. But these places are few and far between. The most successful places are those built using urban-design principles — with density, walkability, and good transit.

Real-estate investors in 2015 need to pay attention to the two main conclusion of the report: if a property resembles or relies upon sprawl in any way, or doesn’t appeal to Millennials, think before you invest.

46. According to the new report, real estate development in 2015 will witness

A) an accelerating speed

B) a shift to city centers

C) a new focus on small cities

D) an ever-increasing demand

【答案】B

【解析】根据题干关键词real estate development in 2015可定位至第一段。

47. What characterizes “24-hour cities” like New York?

A) People can live without private care.

B) People are generally more competitive.

C) People can employ services around the clock.

D) People are in harmony with the environment.

【答案】C

【解析】根据题干关键词24-hour cities和New York可定位至第三段。

48. Why are Millennials are reluctant to buy a house?

A) They can only afford small apartments.

B) The house prices are currently too high.

C) Their parents,bad experience still haunts them.

D) They feel attached to the suburban environment.

【答案】C

【解析】根据题干关键词Millennials和buy a house可定位第四段。

49. What might hinder real estate development in the U.S.?

A) The continuing economic recession in the country.

B) The lack of confidence on the part of investors.

C) The fierce global competition.

D) The worsening infrastructure.

【答案】D

【解析】根据题干关键词hinder和real estate development可定位至第六、七段。

50. How do most of the respondents in the survey feel about the U.S. real-estate market in 2015?

A) Pessimistic. B) Hopeful.

C) Cautious. D) Uncertain.

【答案】B

【解析】根据题干关键词respondents和real-estate market in 2015可定位至第八段。

Passage Two

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

The brain is truly a marvel. A seemingly endless library, whose shelves house our most precious memories as well as our lifetime’s knowledge. But is there a point where it reaches capacity? In other words, can the brain be “full”?

The answer is a resounding no, because, well, brains are more sophisticated than that. A study published in Nature Neuroscience earlier this year shows that instead of just crowding in, old information is sometimes pushed out of the brain for new memories to form.

Previous behavioural studies have shown that learning new information can lead to forgetting. But in a new study, researchers demonstrated for the first time how this effect occurs in the brain.

In daily life, forgetting actually has clear advantages. Imagine, for instance, that you lost your bank card. The new card you receive will come with a new personal identification number (PIN). Each time you remember the new PIN, you gradually forget the old one. This process improves access to relevant information, without old memories interfering.

And most of us will be able to identify with the frustration of having old memories interfere with new, relevant memories. Consider trying to remember where you parked your car in the same car park you were at a week earlier. This type of memory (where you are trying to remember new, but similar information) is particularly susceptible to interference.

When we acquire new information, the brain automatically tries to incorporate it within existing information by forming associations. And when we retrieve information, both the desired and associated but irrelevant information is recalled.

The majority of previous research has focused on how we learn and remember new information. But current studies are beginning to place greater emphasis on the conditions under which we forget, as its importance begins to be more appreciated.

A very small number of people are able to remember almost every detail of their life. While it may sound like an advantage to many, people with this rare condition often find their unusual ability burdensome.

Some report an inability to think about the present or the future, because of the feeling of constantly living in the past, caught in their memories. And this is what we all might experience if our brains didn’t have a mechanism for superseding information that’s no longer relevant and did indeed fill up.

At the other end of the spectrum is a phenomenon called “accelerated long-term forgetting”,which has been observed in epilepsy and stroke patients. As the name suggests, these people forget newly learnt information at a much faster rate, sometimes within a few hours, compared to what’s considered normal.

It’s believed this represents a failure to “consolidate” or transfer new memories into long-term memory. But the processes and impact of this form of forgetting are still largely unexplored.

In a sense,forgetting is our brain’s way of sorting memories, so the most relevant memories are ready for retrieval. Normal forgetting may even be a safety mechanism to ensure our brain doesn’t become too full.

51.What have past behavioural studies found about our brain?

A) Its capacity actually knows no limits.

B) It grows sophisticated with practice.

C) It keeps our most precious memories until life’s end.

D) New information learned pushes old information out.

【答案】D

【解析】根据题干中的关键词past behavioural studies可定位至第三段。

52. What is the benefit of forgetting?

A) It frees us from painful memories.

B) It helps slow down our aging process.

C) It facilitates our access to relevant information.

D) It prevents old information from forming associations.

【答案】C

【解析】本题定位至第四段。

53. What is the emphasis of current studies of memory?

A) When people tend to forget.

B) What contributes to forgetting.

C) How new technology hinders memory capacity.

D) Why learning and forgetting are complementary.

【答案】B

【解析】根据题干中的关键词emphasis和current studies可定位至第七段。

54. What do people find about their rare ability to remember every detail of their life?

A) It adds to the burden of their memory.

B) It makes their life more complicated.

C) It contributes to their success in life.

D)It constitutes a rare object of envy.

【答案】A

【解析】根据题干中的关键词every detail of their life可定位至第八段。

55.What does the passage say about forgetting?

A) It can enlarge our brain capacity.

B) It helps get rid of negative memories.

C) It is a way of organizing our memories.

D) It should not cause any alarm in any way.

【答案】C

【解析】本题定位至最后一段。

Part IV Translation

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.

黄河是亚洲第三、世界第六长的河流。”黄”这个字描述的是其河水浑浊的颜色。黄河发源 于青海,流经九个省份,最后注入渤海。黄河是中国赖以生存的几条河流之一。黄河流域(river basin)是中国古代文明的诞生地,也是中国早期历史上最繁荣的地区。然而,由于极具破坏力的洪水频发,黄河曾造成多次灾害。在过去几十年里,政府采取了各种措施防止灾害发生。

【参考译文】The Yellow River ranks the third longest in Asia and the sixth longest in the world. The word “yellow” describes the muddy water of the river. The Yellow River, one of several rivers for China to live on, originates from Qinghai, flows through nine provinces, and finally pours into the Bohai Sea. The river basin is not only the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilization, but also the most prosperous region in the early history of China. However, due to the frequent devastating floods, it has caused many disasters. In the past few decades, the government has taken various measures to prevent disasters.

【解析】由“黄河”翻译为“The Yellow River”;“发源于”翻译为“originate”;“注入”翻译为“pour into”;“最繁荣的地区”翻译为“the most prosperous region”;“极具破坏力的洪水频发”翻译为“the frequent devastating floods”;“采取了各种措施”翻译为“taken various measures”。

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外语教育网(www.for68.com)是北京东大正保科技有限公司(CDEL)旗下一家大型外语远程教育网站,正保科技成立于2005年7月,是国内超大型外语远程教育基地,上榜“北京优质教育资源榜”--“百万读者推崇的网络教育机构”。


公司凭借雄厚的师资力量、先进的网络视频多媒体课件技术、严谨细致的教学作风、灵活多样的教学方式,为学员提供完整、优化的外语课程,既打破了传统面授的诸多限制,发挥了网络教育的优势,也兼顾面授的答疑与互动特点,为我国培养了大量优秀的外语人才。


为了满足学员学习不同语种、不同阶段的学习需求,网站开设了包括考试英语、行业英语、实用口语以及小语种在内的百余门语言学习课程,涵盖英语、日语、韩语、俄语、德语、法语、西班牙语、意大利语、阿拉伯语等主要语种,供学员自由选择。此外,网站还拥有各类外语专业信息和考试信息20余万条,是广大学员了解外语类考试最新政策、动态及参加各语种培训的优质网站。


北京东大正保科技有限公司成立于2000年,是一家具备网络教育资质、经教育部批准开展远程教育的专业公司,为北京市高新技术企业、中国十大教育集团、联合国教科文组织技术与职业教育培训在中国的唯一试点项目。


公司下属13家行业远程教育网站,业务涵盖了会计、法律、医学、建设、自考、成考、考研、中小学、外语、信息技术、汉语言教学等诸多领域,拥有办公面积8000多平米,员工近千人,公司年招生规模达270万人。由于正保远程教育(China Distance Education Holdings Ltd., CDEL)在中国互联网远程教育行业内的绝对优势和强大影响力,正保教育模式一直被广大投资人所追捧。2008年7月30日,公司在美国纽约证券交易所正式挂牌上市(股票交易代码:DL),是2008年唯一一家在美国纽交所上市的专业从事互联网远程教育的中国企业。


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