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2018年6月英语四级真题及参考答案(卷一):仔细阅读

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  Passage One

       Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

       Losing your ability to think and remember is pretty scary. We know the risk of dementia (痴呆) increases with age. But if you have memory slips, you probably needn‘t worry. There are pretty clear differences between signs of dementia and age-related memory loss. After age 50, it’s quite common to have trouble remembering the names of people, places and thing quickly, says Dr. Kirk Daffner of Brigham and Woman‘s Hospital in Boston. The brain ages just like the rest of the body. Certain parts shrink, especially areas in the brain that are important to learning, memory and planning. Changes in brain cells can affect communication between different regions of the brain. And blood flow can be reduced as blood vessels narrow. Forgetting the name of an actor in a favorite movie, for example, is nothing to worry about. But if you forget the plot of the movie or don’t remember even seeing it, that‘s far more concerning, Daffner says. When you forget entire experiences, he says, that’s “a red flag that something more serious may be involved.” Forgetting how to operate a familiar object like a microwave oven, or forgetting how to drive to the house of a friend you‘ve visited many times before can also be signs of something going wrong. But even then, Daffner says, people shouldn’t panic.There are many things that can cause confusion and memory loss, including health problems like temporary stoppage of breathing, high blood pressure, or depression, as well as medications like antidepressants. Even over-the-counter remedies like antihistamines can contribute to memory loss. And the best defense against memory loss is to try to prevent it by building up your brain‘s cognitive (认知的) reserve, Daffner says.“Read books, go to movies, take on new hobbies or activities that force one to think in novel ways,” he says. In other words, keep your brain busy and working. And also get physically active, because exercise is a known brain booster.

       46. Why does the author say that one needn’t be concerned about memory slips?

  A) Not all of them are symptoms of dementia.

  B) They occur only among certain groups of people.

  C) Not all of them are related to one‘s age.

  D) They are quite common among fifty-year-olds.

  47. What happens as we become aged according to the passage?

  A) Our interaction skills deteriorate.

  B) Some parts of our brain stop functioning.

  C) Communication within our brain weakens.

  D) Our whole brain starts shrinking.

  48. Which memory-related symptom should people take seriously?

  A) Totally forgetting how to do one‘s daily routines.

  B) Inability to recall details of one‘s life experiences.

  C) Failure to remember the names of movies or actors.

  D) Occasionally confusing the addresses of one‘s friends.

  49. What should people do when signs of serious memory loss show up?

  A) Check the brain‘s cognitive reserve.

  B) Turn to a professional for assistance.

  C)Stop medications affecting memory.

  D) Exercise to improve their well-being.

  50. What is Dr Daffner‘s advice for combating memory loss?

  A) Having regular physical and mental checkups.

  B) Taking medicine that helps boost one‘s brain.

  C) Engaging in known memory repair activities.

  D) Staying active both physically and mentally.

参考答案:

46. [A]. Not all of them are symptoms of dementia.

47. [C]. Communication within our brain weakens.

48. [A]. Totally forgetting how to do one’s daily routines。

49. [C]. Turn to a professional for assistance.

50. [D]. Staying active both physically and mentally

答案解析:

46. 解析:从原文第一段中的说法,如果你有健忘的情况,你可能不需要担心,痴呆的症状和年龄增长引起的健忘之间有明显的不同。可以得出A. Not all of them are symptoms of dementia. 不是所有的记忆力减退都是痴呆的症状,是正确答案。

47. 解析:从原文第三段中的说法,大脑就像身体的其他部位一样会变老,大脑的一些部位会萎缩,尤其是大脑中对于学习,记忆和规划重要的某些部位。大脑细胞的变化能够影响大脑不同区域的交流。可以得出C. Communication within our brain weakens. 大脑内部的交流会减弱,是正确选项。

48. 解析:从原文第五段中的说法,忘记如何操作家里的东西,比如微波炉,或者忘记如何开车去以前已经拜访过很多次的朋友的家,这都是身体出问题的迹象。可以得出A. Totally forgetting how to do one’s daily routines。完全忘记如何做日常工作,是正确选项。

49. 解析:从原文第七段中的说法,Daffner 建议有严重健忘症状的人去找医生。可以得出C Turn to a professional for assistance. 向专业人士求助,是正确选项。

50. 解析:从原文最后一段的说法,换句话说,保持你的大脑忙碌工作。也要使身体活跃起来,可以得出D Staying active both physically and mentally,保持身体和精神活跃,是正确选项。

 

  Passage Two

       Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

  You probably know about the Titanic, but it was actually just one of three state-of-the art(最先进的) ocean ships back in the day. The Olympic class ships were built by the Harland & Wolff ship makers in Northern Ireland for the White Star Line company. The Olympic class included the Olympic,the Britannic and the Titanic. What you may not know is that the Titanic wasn‘t even the flagship of this class.All in all, the Olympic class ships were marvels of sea engineering, but they seemed cursed to suffer disastrous fates.

  The Olympic launched first in 1910, followed by the Titanic in 1911, and lastly the Britannic in 1914. The ships had nine decks, and White Star Line decided to focus on making them the most luxurious ships on the water.

  Stretching 269.13 meters, the Olympic class ships were wonders of naval technology, and everyone thought that they would continue to be so for quite some time. However, all suffered terrible accidents on the open seas. The Olympic got wreaked before the Titanic did, but it was the only one to survive and maintain a successful career of 24 years. The Titanic was the first to sink after famously hitting a huge iceberg in 1912. Following this disaster, the Britannic hit a naval mine in 1916 and subsequently sank as well.

  Each ship was coal-powered by several boilers constantly kept running by exhausted crews below deck. Most recognizable of the ship designs are the ship‘s smoke stacks, but the fourth stack was actually just artistic in nature and served no functional purpose. While two of these ships sank, they were all designed with doucle hulls(船体) believed to make them “unsinkable”, perhaps a mistaken idea that led to the Titanic’s and the Britannic‘s tragic end.

  The Olympic suffered two crashes with other ships and went on to serve as a hospital ship and troop transport in World War I. Eventually, she was taken out of service od 1935, ending the era of the luxurious Olympic class ocean liners.

  51. What does the passage say about the three Olympic class ships?

  A) They performed marvellously on the sea.

  B) They could all break the ice in their way.

  C) They all experienced terrible misfortunes.

  D) They were models of modern engineering.

  52. What did White Star Line have in mind when it purchased the three ships?

  A) Their capacity of sailing across all waters.

  B) The utmost comfort passengers could enjoy.

  C) Their ability to survive disasters of any kind.

  D) The long voyages they were able to undertake.

  53. What is said about the fourth stack of the ships?

  A) It was a mere piece of decoration.

  B) It was the work of a famous artist.

  C) It was designed to let out extra smoke.

  D) It was easily identifiable from afar.

  54. What might have led to the tragic end of the Titanic and the Britannic?

  A) Their unscientific designs.

  B) Their captains' misjudgment.

  C) The assumption that they were built with the latest technology.

  D) The belief that they could never sink with a double-layer body.

  55. What happened to the ship Olympic in the end?

  A) She was used to carry troops.

  B) She was sunk in World WarⅠ。

  C) She was converted into a hospital ship.

  D) She was retired after her naval service.

  参考答案:

  51. [C] They all experienced terrible misfortunes.

  52. [B] The utmost comfort passengers could enjoy.

  53. [A] It was a mere piece of decoration.

  54. [D] The belief that they could never sink with a double-layer body.

  55. [D] She was retired after her naval service.

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