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2014年12月大学英语四级考试真题(二)

2015-04-29 09:18   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

Writing (30 minutes)

a classmate of yours who has influenced you most in college

参考范文:

In our whole life, we can meet various people but the one who affected me most shows up in college. She is my roommate, Linda.

The reasons why I said that can be seen as follows. First and foremost,she is very hard-studying. Every morning she practices oral English no matter what the weather is like, even in cold winter, it is still dark outside and students are sleeping sound. What's more, she is ready to help anyone. Her stores in our class is the highest, and she always assists those who are left behind in class. What's important, on weekends, she goes to nursing home to help senior citizens to wash their clothes and teach them some English words.

All the evidence supports an unshakable conclusion that what she did teach me how to live a meaningful life, and I believe anyone should follow her. Only in this way can we have a promising future and rosy life.

Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)

Section A

1. A) The woman is fussy about the cleanness of the apartment.

A) He has not cleaned the apartment since his mother’s visit.

B) He does not remember when his mother came over.

C) His mother often helps him to clean the apartment.

2. A) The bus stop is only two minutes5 walk.

B) The running made him short of breath.

C) They might as well take the next bus.

D) The woman is late by a couple of minutes.

3. A) She is suffering a pain in her neck.

B) She is likely to replace Miss Smith.

C) She has to do extra work for a few days.

D) She is quite sick of working overtime.

4. A) Change her job.

B) Buy a dishwasher.

C) Open a flower shop.

D) Start her own business.

5. A) He forgot where he had left the package.

B) He slipped on his way to the post office.

C) He wanted to deliver the package himself.

D) He failed to do what he promised to do.

6. A) The speakers do not agree with each other.

B) The woman does not like horror films.

C) The man pays for the tickets as a rule.

D) The speakers happened to meet in the cinema.

7. A) The woman is just as unlucky as the man.

B) The woman is more sensitive than the man.

C) The speakers share a common view on love.

D) The speakers are unhappy with their marriage.

8. A) Preparations for a forum.

B) Office equipment.

C) Participants of a forum.

D) The number of the guests.

9. A) France. B) Scandinavia.

C) Russia. D) East Europe

10. A) More women will be promoted in the workplace.

B) More women will overcome their inadequacies.

C) More women will receive higher education.

D) More women will work outside the family.

11. A) Try hard to protect women’s rights.

B) Educate men to respect women more.

C) Help women acquire more professional skills.

D) Spend more time changing women’s attitudes,

12. A) In a restaurant.

B) In a hotel lobby.

C) At the man’s office.

D) At the woman’s place.

13. A) He is the chief designer of the latest bike model.

B) He has completed an overseas market survey.

C) He is the Managing Director of Jayal Motors.

D) He has just come back from a trip to Africa.

14. A) To select the right model.

B) To get a good import agent.

C) To convince the board members.

D) To cut down production costs.

15. A) His flexibility.

C) His vision.

C) His intelligence.

D) His determination.

Section B

Passage One

16. A) How being an identical twin influences one’s identity.

B) Why some identical twins keep their identities secret.

C) Why some identical twins were separated from birth.

D) How identical twins are born, raised and educated.

17. A) Their second wives were named Linda. B) They grew up in different surroundings.

C) Their first children were both daughters. D) They both got married when they were 39.

18. A) They want to find out the relationship between environment and biology.

B) They want to see what characteristics distinguish one from the other.

C) They want to understand how twins communicate when far apart.

D) They want to know whether twins can feel each other’s pain.

Passage Two

19. A) It is especially attractive to children and the young.

B) It is the first choice of vacationers on the Continent.

C) It is as comfortable as living in a permanent house.

D) It is an inexpensive way of spending a holiday.

20. A) It has a solid plastic frame.

B) It consists of an inner and an outer tent.

C) It is very convenient to set up.

D) It is sold to many Continental countries.

21. A) A groundsheet. B) A gas stove.

B) A kitchen extension. D) A spare tent.

Passage Three

22. A) It covers 179 square miles. B) It is as big as New York City.

C) It covers 97 square kilometers. D) It is only half the size of Spain.

23. A) Its people lived a healthy lifestyle.

B) It had lots of travelers in the country.

C) Most of its people were unemployed.

D) It was cut off from the rest of the world.

24. A) The fast development of its neighboring countries.

B) The increasing investment by developed countries.

C) The building of roads connecting it with neighboring countries.

D) The establishing of diplomatic relations with France and Spain.

25. A) They work on their farms.

B) They work in the tourist industry.

C) They raise domestic animals.

D) They make traditional handicrafts.

Section C

"Don't take many English courses; they won’t help you get a decent job.” “Sign up for management classes, so you’ll be ready to join the family business when you graduate.”

Sound (26)________ ? Many of us have heard suggestions like these (27)__________ by parents or others close to us. Such comments often seem quite reasonable.

Why, then, should suggestions like these be taken with (28)__________ ? The reason is they relate to decisions you should make. You are the one who must (29)__________ their consequences.

One of the worst reasons to follow a particular path in life is that other people want you to. Decisions that affect your life should be your decisions—decisions you make after you’ve considered various (30)________________ and chosen the path that suits you best.

Making your own decisions does not mean that you should (31)__________ the suggestions of others. For instance, your parents do have their own unique experiences that may make their advice helpful, and having (32)____________ in a great deal of your personal history, they may have a clear view of your strengths and weaknesses. Still, their views are not necessarily accurate. They may still see you as a child, (33)___________ care and protection. Or they may see only your strengths. Or, in some unfortunate cases, they may (34)__________ your flaws and shortcomings.

People will always be giving you advice. Ultimately, though, you have to make your own (35)______________ .

Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

Section A

For decades, Americans have taken for granted the United States’ leadership position in the development of new technologies. The innovations(创新)that resulted from research and development during World War II and afterwards were 36 to the prosperity of the nation in the second half of the 20th century. Those innovations, upon which virtually all aspects of 37 society now depend, were possible because the United States then 38 the world in mathematics and science education. Today, however, despite increasing demand for workers with strong skills in mathematics and science, the 39 of degrees awarded in science, math, and engineering are decreasing.

The decline in degree production in what are called the STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering, and math) seems to be 40 related to the comparatively weak performance by U.S. schoolchildren on international assessments of math and science. Many students entering college have weak skills in mathematics. According to the 2005 report of the Business-Higher Education Forum, 22 percent of college freshmen must take remedial(补习的)math 41, and less than half of the students who plan to major in science or engineering 42 complete a major in those fields.

The result has been a decrease in the number of American college graduates who have the skills, 43 in mathematics, to power a workforce that can keep the country at the forefront(前沿)of innovation and maintain its standard of living. With the 44 performance of American students in math and science has come increased competition from students from other countries that have strongly supported education in these areas. Many more students earn 45 in the STEM disciplines in developing countries than in the United States.

A) accelerating

B) actually

C) closely

D) contemporary

E) courses

F) critical

G) declining

H) degrees

I) especially

J) future

K) led

L) met

M) procedures

N) proportions

O) spheres

Section B

Ban sugary drinks—

that will add fuel to the obesity war

A) On a train last Thursday, I sat opposite a man who was so fat he filled more than one seat. He was pale and disfigured and looked sick to death, which he probably was: obesity(肥胖症)leads to many nasty ways of dying. Looking around the carriage, I saw quite a few people like him, including a couple of fatty children with swollen cheeks pressing against their eyes. These people are part of what is without exaggeration an epidemic(流行病)of obesity.

B) But it is quite unnecessary: there is a simple idea—far from new—that could spare millions of such people a lifetime of chronic(长期的)ill health, and at the same time save the National Health Service (NHS) at least £14 billion a year in England and Wales. There would, you might think, be considerable public interest in it. This simple idea is that sugar is as good—or as bad—as poison and should be avoided. It is pure, white and deadly, as Professor John Yudkin described it 40 years ago in a revolutionary book of that name. The subtitle was How Sugar Is Killing Us.

C) In its countless hidden forms, in ready meals, junk food and sweet drinks, sugar leads to addiction(瘾),to hormonal upsets to the appetite, to metabolic(新陈代谢的)malfunctions and obesity and from there to type 2 diabetes(糖尿病)and its many horrible complications. If people really grasped that, they would try to kick the habit, particularly as Britain is the “fat man of Europe”. They might even feel driven to support government measures to prevent people from consuming this deadly stuff. Yet so far this idea has met little but resistance.

D) It is not difficult to imagine the vested interests(既得利益集团)lined up against any sugar control—all the food and drink manufactures, processors, promoters and retailers who make such easy pickings out of the magic powers of sugar. Then there are the liberals, with whom I would normally side, who protest that government regulation would be yet another instance of interference in our lives.

E) That is true, but people should realise that you cannot have a welfare state without a nanny state(保姆国家), to some degree. If we are all to be responsible for one another’s health insurance, through socialised medicine, then we are all closely involved in one another’s health, including everyone’s eating and drinking. That has already been admitted, finally, with smoking. But it has yet to be admitted with overeating, even though one in four adults in this country is obese and that number is predicted to double by the year 2050. Quite apart from anything else, obesity will cripple the NHS.

F) Recently, though, there have been signs that the medical establishment is trying to sound the alarm. Last month the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges (AMRC) published a report saying that obesity is the greatest public health issue affecting the UK and urging government to do something.

G) The report offers 10 recommendations, of which the first is imposing a tax of 20 percent on sugary drinks for at least a year, on top of the existing 20 percent value-added tax. That at least would be an excellent start. The amounts of sugar in soft drinks are horrifying, and turn straight to fat. As Professor Terence Stephenson, head of the AMRC, has said,sugary soft drinks are “the ultimate bad food. You are just consuming neat sugar. Your body didn’t evolve to handle this kind of thing.”

H) Precisely. The risks of eating too much fat or salt (which are very different) pale into insignificance compared with the harm done by sugar. And it is everywhere.

I) It is difficult to buy anything in a supermarket, other than plain, unprepared meat, fish or vegetables, that doesn’t have a large amount of sugar in it. This has come about because the prevailing scientific views of the 1960s and 1970s ignored the evidence about sugar, and instead saw fat as the really serious risk, both to the heart and other organs, as well as the cause of obesity.

J) The fashion was to avoid fat. But finding that food with much its fat removed is not very appetising, food producers turned to sugar as a magic alternative flavour enhancer, often in the forms of syrups(糖浆)that had recently been developed from com, and put it generously into most prepared foods and soft drinks.

K) This stuff is not just fattening. It is addictive. It interferes with the body’s metabolism, possibly via the activity of an appetite-controlling hormone. There’s plenty of evidence for this, for those who will accept the truth.

L) Theoretically, people ought to make “healthy choices” and avoid overeating. But sugar additives are not easy to identify and are hard to avoid. So the snacking, over-drinking and over-eating that makes people fat is not really their own fault: obesity is in large part something that is being done to them. It should be stopped, or rather the government should stop it.

M) Going around my local supermarket, I am constantly astonished that it is still legal to sell all the poisons stacked high on the shelves. The problem is that they are worse than useless. They are poisonous. They are known to be addictive. They are known to make people obese. And giving small children sweet drinks or bottles of fake juice all day long is nothing less than child abuse.

N) Clearly, the sale of such stuff ought to be illegal. I hate to think of yet more government regulation. But a bit of tax on sweet soda and a little more health education, a bit of cooking in schools and banning vending machines(自动售货机)here and there—as suggested by the AMRC report—is not going to achieve very much. Labelling is quite inadequate. What is needed is legislation banning high levels of sugary syrups used in foods and drinks.

O) In June 2012, the then minister for public health said the government was not scared of the food industry and had not ruled out legislation, because of the costs of obesity to the NHS. However, nothing has happened yet. Why not have another Jammie Dodger biscuit and forget about it.

46. Avoiding over-consumption of sugar can improve people’s health as well as save medical expenses.

47. Laws should be passed to make it illegal to produce overly sweet foods or drinks.

48. Giving small children sweet juices to drink all the time is equal to child abuse.

49. Looking around, the author found obesity quite widespread.

50. The number of obese people is expected to increase quickly in the next few decades.

51. If people really understood the horrible consequences of sugary foods and drinks, they would support government measures against sugar consumption.

52. It would be a very good beginning to impose an additional tax on sugary drinks.

53. The government has not yet taken any action to regulate sugar consumption although it indicated its intention to do so some time ago.

54. Sugar is far more harmful to health than fat and salt.

55. Consumers of sweet foods arc not really to blame because they cannot tell what food is sugary.

Section C

Passage One

The rise of the Internet has been one of the most transformative developments in human history, comparable in impact to the invention of the printing press and the telegraph. Over two billion people worldwide now have access to vastly more information than ever before, and can communicate with each other instantly, often using Web-connected mobile devices they carry everywhere. But the Internet’s tremendous impact has only just begun.

“Mass adoption of the Internet is driving one of the most exciting social, cultural, and political transformations in history, and unlike earlier periods of change, this time the effects are fully global," Schmidt and Cohen write in their new book, The New Digital Age.

Perhaps the most profound changes will come when the five billion people worldwide who currently lack Internet access get online. The authors do an excellent job of examining the implications of the Internet revolution for individuals, governments, and institutions like the news media. But if the book has one major shortcoming, it’s that the authors don’t spend enough time applying a critical eye to the role of Internet businesses in these sweeping changes.

In their book, the authors provide the most authoritative volume to date that describe—and more importantly predicts—how the Internet will shape our lives in the coming decades. They paint a picture of a world in which individuals, companies, institutions, and governments must deal with two realities, one physical, and one virtual.

At the core of the book is the idea that “technology is neutral, but people aren’t.” By using this concept as a starting point, the authors aim to move beyond the now familiar optimist vs. pessimist dichotomy(对立观点)that has characterized many recent debates about whether the rise of the Internet will ultimately be good or bad for society. In an interview with TIME earlier this week, Cohen said although he and his co-author are optimistic about many aspects of the Internet, they’re also realistic about the risks and dangers that lie ahead when the next five billion people come online, particularly with respect to personal privacy and state surveillance(监视).

56. In what way is the rise of the Internet similar to the invention of the printing press and the telegraph?

A) It transforms human history. B) It facilitates daily communication.

C) It is adopted by all humanity. D) It revolutionizes people’s thinking.

57. How do Schmidt and Cohen describe the effects of the Internet?

A) They are immeasurable. B) They are worldwide.

C) They are unpredictable. D) They are contaminating.

58. In what respect is the book The New Digital Age considered inadequate?

A) It fails to recognize the impact of the Internet technology.

B) It fails to look into the social implications of the Internet.

C) It lacks an objective evaluation of the role of Internet businesses.

D) It does not address the technical aspects of Internet communication.

59. What will the future be like when everybody gets online?

A) People will be living in two different realities.

B) People will have equal access to information.

C) People don’t have to travel to see the world.

D) People don’t have to communicate face to face.

60. What does the passage say about the authors of The New Digital Age?

A) They leave many questions unanswered concerning the Internet.

B) They are optimistic about the future of the Internet revolution.

C) They have explored the unknown territories of the virtual world.

D) They don’t take sides in analyzing the effects of the Internet.

Passage Two

In 1950, a young man would have found it much easier than it is today to get and keep a job in the auto industry. And in that year the average autoworker could meet monthly mortgage(抵押贷款)payments on an average home with just 13.4 percent of his take-home pay. Today a similar mortgage would claim more than twice that share of his monthly earnings.

Other members of the autoworker’s family, however, might be less inclined to trade the present for the past. His retired parents would certainly have had less economic security back then. Throughout much of the 1960s, more than a quarter of men and women age 65 and older lived below the poverty level, compared to less than 10 percent in 2010.

In most states, his wife could not have taken out a loan or a credit card in her own name. In 42 states, a homemaker had no legal claim on the earnings of her husband. And nowhere did a wife have legal protection against family violence.

Most black workers would not want to return to a time when, on average, they earned 40 percent less than their white counterparts(职位相当的人), while racially restrictive agreements largely prevented them from buying into the suburban neighborhoods being built for white working-class families.

Today, new problems have emerged in the process of resolving old ones, but the solution is not to go back to the past. Some people may long for an era when divorce was still hard to come by. The spread of no-fault divorce has reduced the bargaining power of whichever spouse is more interested in continuing the relationship. And the breakup of such marriages has caused pain for many families.

The growing diversity of family life comes with new possibilities as well as new challenges. According to a recent poll, more than 80 percent of Americans believe that their current family is as close as the one in which they grew up, or closer. Finding ways to improve the lives of the remaining 20 percent seems more realistic than trying to restore an imaginary golden age.

61. What do we learn about American autoworkers in 1950?

A) They had less job security than they do today.

B) It was not too difficult for them to buy a house.

C) Their earnings were worth twice as much as today.

D) They were better off than workers in other industries.

62. What does the author say about retired people today?

A) They invariably long to return to the golden past.

B) They do not depend so much on social welfare.

C) They feel more secure economically than in the past.

D) They are usually unwilling to live with their children.

63. Why couldn’t black workers buy a house in a white suburban neighborhood?

A) They lacked the means of transportation.

B) They were subjected to racial inequality.

C) They were afraid to break the law.

D) They were too poor to afford it.

64. What is the result of no-fault divorce?

A) Divorce is easier to obtain.

B) Domestic violence is lessened.

C) It causes little pain to either side.

D) It contributes to social unrest.

65. What does the author suggest society do?

A) Get prepared to face any new challenges.

B) Try to better the current social security net.

C) Narrow the gap between blacks and whites.

D) Improve the lives of families with problems.

Translation (30 minutes)

越来越多的中国年轻人正在对旅游产生兴趣,这是今年来的新趋势。年轻游客数量的不断增加,可以归因于他们迅速提高的收入和探索外部世界的好奇心。随着旅行多了,年轻人在大城市和著名景点花的时间少了,他们反而更为偏远的地方所吸引。有些人甚至选择长途背包旅行。最近调查显示,很多年轻人想要通过旅行体验不同的文化、丰富知识、扩展视野。

参考译文

Chinese young people in mounting numbers come to be interested in tourism,which is a new trend of this year.Rising number of young tourists, can be attributed to their rapidly increase income and the curiosity to explore the outside world.With the increase of traveling,the young spend less time in big cities and famous attractions,they are more attracted to remote locations.Some people even choose backpacking trip for long-distance.Recent survey indicates that many young people want to travel to experience different culture, enrich knowledge and broaden view.

点评

大学英语四级的翻译题型在由以往的短句翻译变成段落翻译后,看似翻译的内容更多,难度增大,其实不然。因为短句翻译其实也要结合上下文去理解句子的意思,而段落翻译更注重考查考生的语篇理解和组织能力。此外,该部分还要求考生翻译出来的译文符合英语逻辑,内容;连贯。本篇翻译都是一些简单句型,句子较短,也没有生词和难翻译的词,因此对考生来说,还是比较容易的。

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