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2015年职称英语理工类阅读判断习题及答案(8)

2015-03-09 15:50   来源:外语教育网整理       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

What Is a Dream?

For centuries,people have wondered about thestrange things that they dream about. Some psychologists say that thisnighttime activity of the mind has no special meaning. Others,however,think that dreams are an importantpart of our lives. In fact,many experts believe that dreams can tell us abouta person's mind and emotions.

Before modern times,many people thought thatdreams contained messages from God. It was only in the twentieth century thatpeople started to study dreams in a scientific way.

The Austrian psychologist,Sigmund Freud1,was probably the first person tostudy dreams scientifically. In his famous book,The interpretation of Dreams (1900),Freud wrote that dreams are anexpression of a person's wishes. He believed that dreams allow people toexpress the feelings,thoughts,and fears that they are afraid to express inreal life.

The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung2 wasonce a student of Freud's. Jung,however,had a different idea about dreams. Jung believed that the purpose ofa dream was to communicate a message to the dreamer. He thought people couldlearn more about themselves by thinking about their dreams. For example,peoplewho dream about falling may learn that they have too high an opinion ofthemselves. On the other hand,people who dream about being heroes may learnthat they think too little of themselves.

Modern-day psychologists continue to developtheories about dreams. For example,psychologist William Domhoff from theUniversity of California,Santa Cruz,believes that dreams are tightly linked to a person's daily life,thoughts,and behavior. A criminal,for example,might dream about crime.

Domhoff believes that there is a connectionbetween dreams and age. His research shows that children do not dream as muchas adults. According to Domhoff,dreaming is a mental skill that needs time todevelop.

He has also found a link between dreams andgender. His studies show that the dreams of men and women are different. Forexample,the people in men's dreams are often other men,and the dreams ofteninvolve fighting. This is not true of women's dreams.3 Domhoff found thisgender difference in the dreams of people from 11 cultures around the world,including both modern and traditional ones.

Can dreams help us understand ourselves?Psychologists continue to try to answer this question in different ways.However,one thing they agree on this: If you dream that something terrible isgoing to occur,you shouldn't panic. The dream may have meaning,but it doesnot mean that some terrible event will actually take place. It's important toremember that the world of dreams is not the real world.

练习:

1.Not everyone agrees that dreams are meaningful.

A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

2.According to Freud,people dream about things that they cannot talk about.

A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

3.Jung believed that dreams did not help one to understand oneself.

A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

4.In the past,people believed that dreams involved emotions.

A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

5.According to Domhoff,babies do not have the same ability to dreamas adults do.

A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

6.Men and women dream about different things.

A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

7.Scientists agree that dreams predict the future.

A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

答案与题解

1.A 这句话恰好表达了本文第一段的意思。即有些心理学家认为,人脑睡眠中的活动没有特别意义;而有些人则认为,梦可以揭示人的思维和情感。

2.A 第三段的最后一句讲的是弗洛伊德认为梦反映了人们在现实情况下害怕表达的情感、想法或恐惧。此句与本叙述一致。

3.B 第四段的第二句和第三句:Jung believed that the purpose of a dream was to communicate amessage to the dreamer.(荣格认为梦的用途是向做梦者传递一个信息)He thought people could learn more about themselves by thinkingabout their dreams.(他认为人们通过思考所做的梦能够更好地了解自己)。他给出了两个例子来说明他的论点。

4.C 文中没有提及。

5.A 依据第六段,Domhoff研究得出:婴儿不像成人做那么多的梦,做梦是一种需要时间提高的技能。这就说明了婴儿不具备成人做梦的能力。

6.A 本文第七段讲述了做梦与性别的关系。第二句更指出男人和女人做的梦是不同的。

7.B 最后一段的倒数第二句讲的是:梦可能会有意义,但并不表示一些恐怖事情就一定会发生。因而不能预测未来。

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