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2015年职称英语理工类概括大意模拟习题及答案(10)

2015-03-09 16:21   来源:外语教育网整理       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

1 An animal that influenced scientific thought has died.A chimpanzee named Washoe and born in Africa died of natural causes late last month at the age of 42 at a research center in the American state of Washington.Wash0e had become known in the scientific community1 and around the world for her ability to use American Sign Language2.She was said to be the first non-human to learn a human language.Her skills also led to debate3 about primates and their ability to understand language.

2 Research scientists Allen and Beatrix Gardner began teaching Washoe sign language in 1966.In 1969,the Gardners7 described Washoe's progress in a scientific report.The people who experimented with Washoe said she grew to understand4 about 250 words.For example,Washoe made signs to communicate when it was time to eat.She could request foods like apples and bananas.She also asked questions like,"Who is coming to play?" Once5 the news about Washoe spread,many language scientists began studies of their own6 into this new and exciting area of research.The whole direction of primate research changed.

3 However,critics argued Washoe only learned to repeat sign language movements from watching her teachers.They said she had never developed true language skills.Even now,there are some researchers who suggest that primates learn sign language only by memory,and perform the signs only for prizes.Yet Washoe's keepers disagree.Roger Fouts is a former student of the Gardners7.He took Washoe to a research center in Ellensburg,Washington.There,Washoe taught sign language to three younger chimpanzees,which are still alive.

4 Scientists like private researcher Jane Goodall believes Washoe provided new information about the mental workings of chimpanzees8.Today,there are not as many scientists studying language skills with chimps.Part of the reason is that this kind of research takes a very long time.

5 Debate continues about chimps' understanding of human communication.Yet,one thing is sure —— Washoe changed popular ideas about the possibilities of animal intelligence.

练习:

1.Paragraph 1▁▁

2.Paragraph 2▁▁

3.Paragraph 3▁▁

4.Paragraph 4▁▁

A Reason Why Not Many Scientists Carry out This Research Nowadays

B Report about Washoe's Progress in Learning Sign Language

C General Information about Washoe

D The Gardeners' Contributions Recognized

E Debate on Chimps' Intelligence

F Washoe's Love for Three Young Chimps

5.Washoe could make signs to communicate

6.Some scientists doubted

7.Washoe taught three younger chimps sign language

8.The experimenters thought Washoe was intelligent

A if the Gardeners' argument was sound

B because she was cleverer than other chimps

C when she wanted to eat

D while she was at a research center in Ellensburg

E because she could use sign language to ask for fruits

F while Washoe was learning sign language

答案与题解:

1.C 第一段主要介绍猩猩Washoe的出生地、死亡年龄、被带到美国学习美式手语等一般情况。用General Information about Washoe来概括是很准确的。

2.B 第二段的关键句是In 1969,the Gardners described Washoe's progress in a scientific report.随后的句子简略的介绍了Washoe的学习情况和结果,如已学会了250个单词,并能用手语表达“该吃饭了”等概念。所以,Report about Washoe's Progress in Learning Sign Language(选项B)是答案。

3.E 第三段介绍了对Gardener夫妇发表的报告有两种不同的解读。一派认为Washoe的手语能力只是机械重复、死记硬背、物质激励的结果,不是智能的表现。另一派认为知识智能的表现,其证据是Washoe还能教三个小猩猩学习手语。争论的焦点是猩猩有没有智能。选项E用debate来概括上述争论,所以是答案。

4.A 第四段解释了为什么现在从事这项研究的科学家人数不多。部分原因是研究周期太长。

5.C 选C 的第四段第二句:Washoe made signs to communicate when it was time to eat.

6.A 第三段的上半段说了一些科学家对Gardener 夫妇的试验的解读所持怀疑态度。题干中出现的doubted引导我们选A.

7.D 选D DE 依据是第三段的最后一句,即“He took Washoe to a research center in Ellensburg,Washington.There,Washoe taught sign language to three younger chimpanzees,which are still alive.”

8.E 本文第二段谈到试验的成果时有一个句子:“She could request foods like apples and bananas”。根据全段意思和上述句子,选择E是正确的。

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