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2016年职称英语《理工类》阅读理解强化习题(2)

2016-01-22 11:47   来源:外语教育网整理       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

Motoring Technology

1.2 million road deaths worldwide occur each year,plus a further 50 million injuries.To reduce car crash rate,much research now is focused on safety and new fuels-though some electric vehicle and biofuel research aims at going faster.

Travelling at speed has always been dangerous.One advanced area of research in motoring safety is the use of digital in-car assistants.They can ensure you don't miss important road signs or fall asleep.Most crashes result from human and not mechanical faults.

Some safety developments aim to improve your vision.Radar can spot obstacles in fog,while other technology“sees through”big vehicles blocking your view.

And improvements to seat belts,pedal(脚踏)controls and tyres are making driving smoother and safer.The colour of a car has been found to be linked with safety,as have,less surprisingly,size and shape.

But whatever is in the fuel tank,you don't want a thief in the driving seat and there have been many innovations(创新)。Satellite tracking and remote communications can also come into play if you crash,automatically calling for help.

Accidents cause many traffic jams,but there are more subtle interplays between vehicles that can cause jams even on a clear but busy road.Such jams can be analyzed using statistical tools.Robotic drivers could be programmed to make traffic flow smoothly and will perhaps one day be everyons's personal chauffeur(司机),but their latest efforts suggest that won’t be soon.

1.To reduce car crash rate,many scientists are working hard to

A.design fully automatic cars.

B.develop faster electric vehicles.

C.analyze road deaths occurring worldwide each year.

D.improve the safety of cars and develop new fuels.

2.According to the second paragraph,most road accidents happen due to

A.heavy traffic.

B.human mistakes.

C.engine failure.

D.bad weather.

3.Which of the following safety developments is NOT mentioned in the passage?

A.Windscreens that can help drivers to improve their vision.

B.Radars that can help drivers to see obstacles in fog.

C.Devices that can help drivers to see through big vehicles.

D.Improvements in seat belts,pedal controls and tyres.

4.Satellite tracking and remote communication systems cna be used to

A.reduce oil consumption.

B.remove the obstacles on the road.

C.call for help when one's car crashes.

D.help drivers get out of a traffic jam.

5.Which of the following statements is true of robotic drivers?

A.It will take some time before robotic drivers are available.

B.Robotic drivers are not allowed to driveon busy roads.

C.Robotic drivers can never replace human drivers.

D.Robotic drivers are too expensive to use.

参考答案:D、B、A、C、A

The Effects of Global Warming on Weather

There are hidden factors which scientists call "feedback mechanisms“。 No one knows quite how they will interact with the changing climate.Here's one example: plants and animals adapt to climate change over centuries.At the current estimate of half a degree centigrade of warming per decade,vegetation (植物) may not keep up.Climatologist James Hansen predicts climate zones will shift toward the poles by 50 to 75 kilometres a year—faster than trees can naturally migrate.Species that find themselves in an unfamiliar environment will die.The 1000-kilometer-wide strip of forest running through Canada,the USSR and Scandinavia could be cut by half.Millions of dying trees would soon lead to massive forest fires,releasing tons of CO2 and further boosting global warming.

There are dozens of other possible "feedback mechanism“。 Higher temperatures will fuel condensation and increase cloudiness,which may actually damp down global warming.Others,like the "albedo"effect,will do the opposite.The "albedo"effect is the amount of solar energy reflected by the earth's surface.As northern ice and snow melts and the darker sea and land pokes (戳) through,more heat will be absorbed,adding to the global temperature increase.

Even if we were to magically stop all greenhouse-gas emissions tomorrow the impact on global climate would continue for decades.Delay will simply make the problem worse.The fact is that some of us are doing quite well the way things are.In developed world prosperity has been built on 150 years of cheap fossil fuels.

Material progress has been linked to energy consumption.Today 75 percent of all the world's energy is consumed by a quarter of the world's population.The average rich-world resident adds about 3.2 tons of CO2 yearly to the atmosphere,more than four times the level added by each Third World citizen.The US,with just seven per cent of the global population,is responsible for 22 per cent of global warming.

41."Feedback mechanisms"in paragraph 1 most probably refer to ____________.

A.how plants and animals adapt to hidden factors

B.how plants and animals interact with the changing climate

C.how climate changes

D.how climate zones shift

42.We can learn from the passage that ____________.

A.some feedback mechanisms may slow down global warming

B.the basic facts of global warming are unknown

C.developing countries benefit from cheap fossil fuels

D.developed countries have decided to reduce their energy consumption

43.James Hansen predicts that the shift of climate zones will be accompanied by ____________.

A.the cutting of many trees

B.desirable environmental changes

C.successful migration of species

D.unsuccessful migration of trees

44.It can be inferred from the passage that ____________.

A.the developing world has decided to increase its energy consumption

B.a third-world citizen adds less than a ton of CO2 yearly to the atmosphere

C.the world climate would soon gain its balance if we stopped greenhouse gas emissions

D.future prosperity of the world is dependent on cheap fossil fuels

45.Which of the following is the main topic of the passage?____________

A.Impact of global warming on climate.

B.Prosperity and cheap fossil fuels.

C.Material progress and energy consumption.

D.Plants and animals in the changing climate.

参考答案:

41.B 第一段中的“feedback mechanisms”的意思最可能是:A动植物是如何适应隐蔽因素的;B动植物是如何与不断变化的气候相互作用的;C气候是如何变化的;D气候带是如何迁移的。

42.A 从文章中我们可以得知:A某些反馈机制可能减缓全球变暖的速度;B全球变暖的基本事实还不为人所知;C发展中国家从廉价的矿物燃料中获益;D发达国家打算降低能耗。

43.D 预测气候带的迁移将由下列哪一项伴随进行?A许多树木被砍伐;B有利的环境变化;C物种的成功迁移;D树木的不成功迁移。

44.B 从文章可以推断出:A发展中国家打算增加能源的消耗;B第三世界每年向大气层释放的二氧化碳,人均不超过一吨;C如果我们停止排放引起温室效应的废气,全球的气候就会获得平衡;D未来世界的繁荣靠廉价的矿物能源。

45.A 本篇文章的主题是:A全球变暖给气候带来的影响;B繁荣与廉价的矿物能源;C物质进步与能源消耗;D气候变化过程中的动植物。

Investment and Consumption

Investment in the public sector,such as electricity,irrigation,public services and transport (excluding vehicles,ships and planes) increased by about 10%,although the emphasis moved to the transport and away from the other sectors mentioned.Trade and services recorded a 16 % ~17 % investment growth,including a 30 % increase in investment in business premises.Industrial investment is estimated to have risen by 8%.Although the share of agriculture in total gross investment in the economy continued to decline,investment grew by 9 % in absolute equipment.Housing construction had 12% more invested in it in 1964,not so much owing to increased demand,as to fears of new taxes and limitation of building.

Total consumption in real terms rose by close on 11% during 1964,and per capita personal consumption by under 7 %,as in 1963.The undesirable trend towards a rapid rise in consumption,evident in previous years,remained unaltered.Since at current prices consumption rose by 16 % and disposable income by 13 %,there was evidently a fall in the rate of saving in the private sector of the economy.Once again consumption patterns indicated a swift advance in the standard of living.Expenditure on food declined in significance,although consumption of fruit increased.Spending on furniture and household equipment,health,education and recreation continued to increase.The greatest proof of altered living standards was the rapid expansion of expenditure on transport (including private cars) and personal services of all kinds,which occurred during 1964.The progressive wealth of large sectors of the public was demonstrated by the changing composition of durable goods purchased.Saturation (饱和) point was rapidly being approached for items such as the first household radio,gas cookers,and electric refrigerators,whereas increasing purchases of automobiles and television sets were registered.

36.From this passage,we learn that people ____________.

A.spent more money than they earned

B.saved more money than previously

C.invested and consumed at an accelerated pace

D.spent their money wisely

37.The author thinks that the trend towards a rapid rise in consumption was "undesirable“because ____________.

A.expenditure on luxuries increased

B.people were wealthy

C.people consumed less

D.people saved less

38.Expenditure increased on all the following EXCEPT ____________.

A.food

B.automobiles

C.education

D.entertainment

39.It can be inferred from the increase of fruit consumption that ___________.

A.people had to spend more on transportation and furniture

B.the price of fruit dropped dramatically

C.people were more money conscious

D.people were more healthy conscious

40.The word "registered"in the last line most probably means ____________.

A.marked

B.approached

C.listed

D.booked

参考答案:

36.C 从本篇文章可以得知:A人们支出大于收入;B人们比以前更节约用钱了;C人们的投资和消费在加速增长;D人们花钱更精明了。

37.C 作者认为消费的快速增长是“不良”的原因是:A奢侈品的消费增加了;B人们富有了;C人们消费减少了;D人们储蓄减少了。

38.A 下列消费都有所增加,只有什么没增加?A食物;B汽车;C教育;D娱乐。

39.D 由水果消费的增长可以推断出:A人们不得不在交通工具和家具上花更多的钱;B水果的价格大大降低;C人们更加重视金钱了;D人们更加重视健康了。

40.A 文章最后一行中的“registered”的意思是:A明显的;B接近;C列举;D预定。

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