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2015年职称英语理工类A级考试冲刺题二(6)

2015-03-17 10:48   来源:外语教育网整理       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

职称英语阅读理解:请根据短文内容,为每题确定1个最佳选项。

The Emic and Etic Approaches

Researchers who are unfamiliar with the cultural and ethnic groups they are studying must take extra precautions to shed any biases they bring with them from their own culture.For example,they must make sure they construct measures that are meaningful for each of the cultural or ethnic minority groups being studied.

In conducting research on cultural and ethnic minority issues,investigators distinguish between the emic approach and the etic approach.In the emic approach,the goal is to describe behavior in one culture or ethnic group in terms that are meaningful and important to the people in that culture or ethnic group,without regard to other cultures or ethnic groups.In the eric approach,the goal is to describe behavior so that generalizations can be made across cultures.If researchers construct a questionnaire in an emic fashion,their concern is only that

the questions are meaningful to the particular culture or ethnic group being studied.If,however,the researchers construct a questionnaire in an etic fashion,they want to include questions that reflect concepts familiar to all cultures involved.

How might the emic and etic approaches be reflected in the study of family processes? In the emic approach,the researchers might choose to focus only on middle-class White families,without regard to whether the information obtained in the study can be generalized or is appropriate for ethnic minority groups.In a subsequent study,the researchers may decide to adopt an eric approach by studying not only middle-class White families,but also lower-income White families,Black American families,Spanish American families,and Asian American families.In studying ethnic minority families,the researchers would likely discover that

the extended family is more frequently a support system in ethnic minority families than in White American families.If so,the emic approach would reveal a more different pattern of family interaction than would the etic approach,documenting that research with middle class White families cannot always be generalized to all

ethnic groups.

36.According to the first paragraph,researchers unfamiliar with the target cultures are inclined to__________

A.be overcautious in constructing meaningful measures

B.view them from their own cultural perspective

C.guard against interference from their own culture

D.accept readily what is alien to their own culture

参考答案:B

参考解析:

【解析】第一段的第一句里作者指出:对研究对象的文化和种族不熟悉的研究人员必须格外谨慎,研究中不要带有从本国文化出发的任何偏见。根据题意,B项的意思表达了作者的这种担心。

37.What does the author say about the emic approach and the eric approach?

A.They have different research focuses in the study of ethnic issues.

B.The former is biased while the latter is objective.

C.The former concentrates on the study of culture while the latter on family issues.

D.They are both heavily dependent on questionnaires in conducting surveys.

参考答案:A

参考解析:

【解析】第二段分别具体地介绍并区分了“the emic approach”和“the etic approach”两种方法为不同的研究项目服务。显然A项所表达的意思最能概括第二段的核心内容。

38.The etic approach is concerned with__________

A.the general characteristics of minority families

B.culture-related concepts of individual ethnic groups

C.features shared by various cultures or ethnic groups

D.the economic conditions of different types of families

参考答案:C

参考解析:

【解析】第二段第三句和最后一句清楚地表明了“the eric approach”为什么样的研究目的服务。因此,C项为答案。

39.Compared with the etic approach,the emic approach is apparently more__________

A.culturally interactive

B.culture-oriented

C.culturally biased

D.culture-specific

参考答案:D

参考解析:

【解析】第二段和第三段分别举例说明了“the emic approach”和“the etic approach”这两种研究方法的不同之处,读者能较为容易地做出正确判断。

40.Which of the following is true of the ethnic minority families in the U.S.according to the passage?

A.Their cultural patterns are usually more adaptable.

B.Their cultural concepts are difficult to comprehend.

C.They don't interact with each other so much as White families.

D.They have closer family ties than White families.

参考答案:D

参考解析:

【解析】见倒数第二句。句中的the extended family描述了ethnic minority families的特点。

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